r TRANSACTION OF THE MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY FOR THE YEAR 1918 PART I PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY BOSTON NINETEEN HUNDRED AND EIGHTEEN TRANSACTIONS OF THE Efessat jjttsdts |p0rfiatliral jlaaelg FOR THE YEAR 1918 PART I BOSTON" PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY NINETEEN Ht'VPRF.P ASP EIOHTUR assathtsetts Jnrttrwltural §s>amtJD. OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES FOR 1918. President. RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL, of Newton. Vice-Presidents . NATHANIEL T. KIDDER, of Milton. CHARLES S. SARGENT, of Brookline. Treasurer. WALTER HUNNEWELL, of Boston. Secretary. WILLIAM P. RICH, of Chelsea.* Trustees. THOMAS ALLEN, of Boston. GEORGE E. BARNARD, of Ipswich. ERNEST B. DANE, of Brookline. WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT, of Boston. ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, of Boston. JOHN K. M. L. PARQUHAR, of Boston. WALTER HUNNEWELL, of Boston. CHARLES W. MOSELEY, of Newburyport. ANDREW W. PRESTON, of Boston. THOMAS ROLAND, of Nahant. EDWIN S. WEBSTER, of Boston. STEPHEN M. WELD, of Wareham. Delegate to the State Board of Agriculture. SAMUEL J. GODDARD, of Framingham. Nominating Committee. JOHN S. AMES, Boston ROBERT CAMERON, Cambridge. THOMAS ROLAND, Nahant. EDWIN S. WEBSTER, Boston. ERNEST H. WILSON, Boston. * Communications to the Secretary, on the business of the Society, should be addressed to him at Horticultural Hall, Boston. COMMITTEES FOE 1918 Finance Committee WALTER HUNNEWELL, Chairman ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK STEPHEN M. WELD Membership Committee THOMAS ALLEN CHARLES W. MOSELEY GEORGE E. BARNARD THOMAS ROLAND RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions JAMES WHEELER. Chairman ROBERT CAMERON DUNCAN FINLAYSOX WILLIAM N. CRAIG T. D. HATFIELD Committee on Plants and Flowers WILLIAM ANDERSON, Chairman ARTHUR H. FEWKES DONALD McKENZlE S. J. GODDARD WILLIAM SIM Committee on Fruits EDWARD B. WILDER, Chairman WILLIAM N. CRAIG ISAAC H. LOCKE JAMES METHVEN Committee on Vegetables JOHN L. SMITH, Chairman EDWARD PARKER WILLIAM C. RUST Committee on Gardens RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL, Chairman JOHN S. AMES DAVID R. CRAIG WILLIAM NICHOLSON CHARLES SANDER CHARLES H. TENNEY Committee on Library CHARLES S. SARGENT, Chairman ERNEST B. DANE NATHANIEL T. KIDDER Committee on Lectures and Publications FRED A. WILSON. Chairman THOMAS ALLEN JOHN ELM.] LQUHAR Committee on Children's Gardens HENRY s. \i> LMS, Chmirman DR. HARRIS KENNEDY MRS. w. RODMAN PEABODY MISS MARGARET A. RAND 1 \MES WHEELER Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 1918. The Transactions of the Society are issued annually in two parts under the direction of the Committee on Lectures and Publications. Communications relating to the objects of the Society, its publi- cations, exhibitions, and membership, may be addressed to William P. Rich, Secretary, Horticultural Hall, No. 300 Massachusetts Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts. Fred A. Wilson, Chairman ] Committee on Thomas Allen > Lectures and John K. M. L. Farquhar J Publications. CONTENTS. The Inaugural Meeting 7 Horticultural Papers 15 Alpine Plants for the Rock Garden. By Mrs. Louis Chanter 17 The Arnold Arboretum. By Edward I. Farrington . 33 New Horticultural Crops for Food Supply. By Prof. U. P. Hedrick ... ... 51 The Peony. By Bertrand H. Parr .... 65 The Diseases of Roses. By Prof. Louis M. Massey . 81 THE INAUGURAL MEETING, JANUARY 12, 1918. TRANSACTIONS OF THE 1918, PART I. INAUGURAL MEETING. The Inaugural Meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society for the year 1918 was held at Horticultural Hall, Boston, on Saturday, January 12, at twelve o'clock, with President Salton- stall in the Chair. The call for the meeting was read by the Secretary and the record of the previous meeting was read and approved. The President then proceeded to deliver his Inaugural Address. Inaugural Address of President Saltonstall. Ladies and Gentlemen, Members of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society: It has been a great pleasure to me to serve as your President for the past two years. It was certainly my intention to retire with the close of last year, but it was represented to me that several of my predecessors had served three years; that it was a year filled with difficulties arising from the war and that under the circumstances I owed it to the Society to continue in office one more year. For these reasons I shall gladly undertake to serve to my best ability although I believe that rotation in the office of the President of this Society every two yean ordinarily is advisable. The past year has been one of great interest to me and I feel that the result of the work of your Trustees and the various Com- mittees undertaken during the year has not only kept up with the B MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY standard of the past eighty-eight years, but in several respects has shown marked progress. There have been ten indoor shows during the year. These all will be spoken of in the reports of your Committees. I want to speak briefly of the Spring Show, the June Outdoor Show, the Special Fruit Show, and of the Children's Garden Show. We started in early last year to make the March Show especially attractive and we employed for the first time Mr. Chester I. Campbell, the well-known publicity agent, to assist in giving publicity to the Show. The exhibit itself was certainly most attractive. We shall carry in our minds for years the impression made by the lovely exhibits of Acacias and Orchids and flowering bulbs and grouped plants. The exhibits were effectively arranged both as to color and varieties and many who have attended our shows for years were enthusiastic in their praise of this Show. It was a Show that stimulated a real interest in a very large number of people. The paid entrances amounted to $7,383.25, a considerably larger amount than was ever received at any one show given by the Society. Our expenses were large but we made a considerable sum, and the thing not to be overlooked is the fact that we reached a very large number of people. I think it may well be referred to as the biggest and the best show we ever had indoors. The June Show was featured along quite different lines; our Society in its early history had given shows on the Public Garden and Boston Common, the last in 1S73. We wished to exhibit some of our beautiful indoor and outdoor plants and shrubs under more favorable conditions than is possible in the Hall and for this reason secured the spacious grounds of the Arioch Wentworth Institute. It is not necessary to mention the great amount of work which was done in adapting these grounds to the rock garden and pond and the outside planting for it is fresh in the minds of all of us. The seven large tents with their various special exhibits was the most ambitious venture ever undertaken by our Society in the way of an outdoor show. The exhibits were certainly most excellent. The Orchid Show was worth traveling miles to see, and the same was true of the Azaleas, the Wisterias, and the Roses. For some reason which I cannot explain we had most uncommonly bad luck on weather. INAUGURAL MEETING V It was very cold and rainy prior to the Show so that the Rhododen- drons were far from their bloom, and to make matters worse it continued to rain almost every day of the Show. It was indeed most depressing. If I remember rightly, the one person who could look pleasant during the last days of the Show was our good friend James Wheeler who did his very best to help us out of our troubles. The Show was not supported by the public and under the circum- stances the result was not surprising although terribly disappoint- ing. Great thanks are due to Mr. Walter Hunnewell and Prof. Charles S. Sargent for their exhibits of Rhododendrons, Azaleas, and Wisterias, to Messrs. John Waterer's Sons Co. of England, for a fine exhibit of Rhododendrons, to Mr. Thomas Roland for the Roses, to Mr. John K. M. L. Farquhar for his collection of new varieties of evergreens, mostly the result of Mr. Wilson's collections in China and Japan in recent years, to Mr. Cooley, Mr. Webster, Julius Roehrs Co., F. J. Dolansky, Mrs. Weld, and several others for the Orchids, to Mr. Sim for his Pansy exhibit, and to numer- ous other exhibitors all of whom exhibited, without expectation of money prizes. As one result of this effort, I was obliged to call upon 19 members of our Society who had underwritten various amounts in case of a loss and as a result of their generosity our Society sustained a trifling loss although the amount to be paid up was a good large sum, so large that I think it just as well not to mention it. The chances of bad weather necessarily make a show of this kind more of a venture. I am glad that we gave the Show and certainly hope that it may have done some lasting good to our Society. The Show in itself was certainly most creditable, and the Society is greatly indebteded to Mr. Thomas Allen for his efficient services in connection with the arrangement of the same. At the Fall Fruit Show given in conjunction with the American Pomological Society and the New England Fruit Show in Novem- ber there was a fine exhibit of apples and a fair exhibit of pears, grapes, and some other fruits. An instructive series of lectures was given during the progress of the Show. Great interest i^ ap- parent in the cultivation of the apple but there seems to be a comparatively little interest in the growing and development of die pear. Years ago in tins Society there appears to have been more interest in the pear than in the apple. 10 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY I happened to be glancing over* the report of the annual meeting in 1866 and mention is there made of an award to Francis Dana for the introduction of the Dana's Hovey, to my mind one of the very nicest pears grown. How long is it, I wonder, since anyone of our members has been awarded a prize for the introduction of so good a pear as that ! The Exhibition of the Products of Children's Gardens was wonderfully successful this year. It showed beyond doubt that the children are interested in the growing of commercial crops, perhaps especially stimulated this year by the war conditions. We believe our annual show for children is specially desirable and should be continued from year to year with such variation in program as to broaden the field of activity. Now for the coming year. It is certainly for the best interests of our Society to continue our efforts to increase the membership. As a result of our efforts last year we secured 83 new members. We have had a considerable number of deaths but our membership roll has increased from 925 to 979 and a large proportion of the new members were life members. From figures given me by our Secretary, it appears that our membership in 1875 was 1035 and this I believe was the largest membership of our Society. Now we have only to gain 56 more members to pass that goal and I should like to accomplish that result this year. It ought to be easy. Each member ought to be able to propose at least one member. . W 7 hy, think of it, the list of Fellows in the Royal Society of London in 1914 was 14,400! The Catalogue of the Library, I am told, will contain not only a correct list of our books but a subject index for flowers, vege- tables, and fruits, giving a classified list of all that pertains to each special subject. It is expected that this will be completed during the year. The Lectures will be continued and the program already published shows an interesting group of various subjects which will be dis- cussed. These lectures are well attended and certainly must be doing a considerable good in stimulating interest in horticulture. The fact that our country is now engaged in a serious war which is affecting all industries to a greater or lesser extent has led your Trustees and Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions to carefully INAUGURAL MEETING 11 reconsider the schedule program for the shows as first proposed for this year. We planned some months ago to appropriate about 88500 for prizes for flowers, fruits, and vegetable exhibits and to especially feature a vegetable show in the fall by the giving of much larger money prizes than has been customary lately, but we have been forced to reconsider the advisability of this for various reasons. In the first place, our income is going to be considerably less, less rentals and less bounty from the State and our necessary expenses are going to be higher, e. g. coal 81000.00 more this year than last, so that it is manifestly necessary and advisible to con- serve our resources to the fullest extent. Again, the thought has occurred to us that our Society could and should actively assist in some recognized war charity or work for the benefit of our soldiers and as the best manner of doing this we are planning to make all our important shows Pay Shows, to give no money prizes except in a few special cases where money has been given to be awarded in special ways, and to give all the net receipts to the Red Cross or other as well recognized charity. We are going to call upon our amateur and professional growers and our wholesale and retail flower dealers to actively participate in undertaking to make these shows a wonderful success and in that way to contribute a goodly sum to the good cause of charity. The more you think of this, the more I trust you will be favorably impressed with our purposes, and the more you will be determined, I hope, to make the shows a great success. We may well say to ourselves in what other ways can we assist to meet the seri< Hi- consequences of war? Already our Halls have been used for the Red Cross for three months rent free for surgical dressings work. Should we not be considering whether we cannot do more in encouraging the proper planting and growing of commcrieal crops! It is all well enough to stimulate the growing of vegetables, but is not a lot of money wasted doing it as it was done last Spril If done again this spring, should not proper instruction be given in the matter of fertilizers and the proper method of preparing the ground? If with our resources we could start an advanced course of instruction to teachers in this line of work, it might do much good and save a lot of useless expense. 12 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY Could we not also consider the advisability of growing intelli- gently more of our own vegetable seeds and take care ourselves of this industry which in past years has become an important trade to Germany? In this connection it is interesting to read an old advertisement that appeared in the Worcester Gazette, April 3, 1783. "GARDEN SEEDS. To be sold, by edmund heard, in Lancaster, the following assortment of garden seeds, warrented of the last Year's produce, viz. early peas early dwarf kidney, and six week beans, early stone turnip, early Yorkshire, green Savoy, and winter cabbage, early Mogul, and head lettuce, pepper- grass, PARSLEY, RADDISH, CELERY, BEET, ONION, CARROT, PARSNIP, summer and winter squash. CUCUMBER, MUSK MELON, and PEPPER SEED, also, White beans, brought from the Northward, of a superior Quality for planting in Cornfields. LANCASTER, MARCH 14, 1783." We all know how unpleasant it is to find that we have failed to secure a good crop on account of poor seed and possibly this could be rectified if our seeds were grown here at home. Certainly we would be more independent in a time of war as now. Just one more thought which has occurred to me since the war. Some people look upon the growing of flowers as a pure luxury which ought to be given up during war times. Now I do not agree with this thought and I want to tell you why. First, we must consider the fact that a very considerable number of men have given up their life work to the study and work of floriculture, a science in itself; of these men many are of mature years and are utterly unfitted for other fields of work, and in many cases dependent on their work for their support. Again, it is INAUGURAL MEETING 13 important to keep this industry going for those who will wish to return to it after the war. Second, a vast amount of plant life in greenhouses would be lost if greenhouses should be given up. These plants in many cases have taken years to grow and perhaps could never be replaced. Third, flowers surely are not so much of a luxury as costly clothing or jewelry worn chiefly to attract the eye, or the many attractive but not necessary fittings of our homes. If all luxuries are to go, flowers must go with them, but when you consider the great amount of happiness and real pleasure that can be given to the sick and the wounded and those confined to their bed, in some cases far away from home, I say that flowers should be the last of all luxuries to be forced out by dire stress of war. In conclusion, let me say that I have received the helpful coopera- tion of all officers and committee members for which I am deeply grateful. I have enjoyed becoming better acquainted with them and shall try to know them even better as we go through this year together and shall hope to retain their confidence and their full support. At the close of the address the annual reports of the officers and chairmen of the various committees of the Society were called for and presented in the following order: Report of the Treasurer, Walter Hunnewell. Report of the Board of Trustees, by the Secretary. Report of the Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions, James Wheeler, Chairman. Report of the Committee on Plants and Flowers, William Ander- son, Chairman. Report of the Committee on Fruits, Edward B. Wilder, Chairman. Report of the Committee on Vegetables, John L. Smith, (hair- man. Report of the Committee on Gardens, Richard M. Saltonstall, ( liairman. Report of the Committee on Children's Gardens. Henry S. Adams, Chairman. 14 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY Report of the Delegate to the State Board of Agriculture, Edward B. Wilder. Report of the Secretary and Librarian. The various reports were separately accepted with thanks and referred to the Committee on Publications for record in the Trans- actions of the Society. The meeting was then dissolved. William P. Rich, Secretary. HORTICULTURAL PAPERS. •;MASS. HORT. SOC, 1918 PLATE 3 Mrs. L. S. Chanler's Rock Garden ALPINE PLANTS FOR THE ROCK GARDEN. By Mrs. L. S. Chanler, Tuxedo Park, N. Y. Delivered before the Society, with stereopticon illustrations, June 2, 1917. Alpine plants are a source of endless interest and pleasure to all who know them. The object of w r hat I have to say today is to try and increase your interest in them, be it ever so little. Un- doubtedly, many of you who are devoted gardeners have never felt any enthusiasm for al pines and have perhaps even suspected them of being a foolish fad. That is a normal state for those who do not know these plants. I felt that way myself not many years ago and used to ask my English friends not to show me their rock gardens, as I did not understand them. It is certain that anyone who commences to grow alpines never gives them up. Their charms and fascinations are endless, and though their flowers are usually to be seen only in the spring their growth of foliage rosettes covered with fat buds in many varieties, or laced over w r ith exquisite white markings, as in the encrusted saxifrages, is most lovely at all seasons, and most alpines are ever- green. About the middle of September, when the great heat is over, these plants like many evergreens put out new shoots and take on an altogether spruce and lively air. Also, many of them bloom again, not with the rich profusion of early summer, but the few late flow T ers give all the more pleasure because of being rare. A wonderful lace-like plant which blooms from May to December is Asperula cynanch'nia. You see it here draping these rocks in late October. Here is a closer view of it, and later you will see it blooming in early summer. It has all the soft, foamy effect of gypsophila but not gypsophila's bad habit of blooming only once. Here is Sedinn Sieboldii, also in October. It is a lovely gray and pink plant, and the flowers last ;» long time. Gardeners have sometimes objected thai our summers are too 17 IS MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY hot to grow alpine plants successfully, and this is truly our greatest difficulty. If it is possible to place a rock construction facing north, then our chance- re greatly increased. But. though our summer sunshine is too ardent, our winter snows are of the very greatest benefit to these little plants. Dining the winter before last, when my garden in Tuxedo was under a nice blanket of snow for nearly four months, not a plant was lost in the rock garden. Of course, in this country we also sometimes have open winters, but never the warm green Januarys they often get in England, which excite the plants into premature growth and result in many flowers being destroyed. In Tuxedo we have only one plant which has such an early habit that it always starts blooming before Christmas. That plant is Erica hubrida, a variety not unlike Erica carnea, but daintier, quicker-growing, and with much paler flowers. This picture was taken in October. The buds, of course, increased in size during the warm, sunny days of N ember. For all the gray and woolly alpine plants our climate is far better than the English, and we constantly read in the books by Farrer and Robinson about gray-leaved plants damping off and needing the protection of a piece of glass to keep off what they call their rotting rains. A case in point is Androsace sarmentosa. A friend brought me a plant of it from Switzerland, and this is what I read about it in Robinson's "Alpine Plants": "This is a Hima- in species, growing at an elevation of over 11,000 feet. The flowers, borne in trusses of ten to twenty, at first sight resem- ble those of a rosy white-eyed verbena. Like many other woolly- leaved alpines. this is difficult to keep alive through our damp winters. A piece of glass in a slanting position about six inches above the plant preserves it. Care should also be taken to put sandstone, broken fine, immediately under the rosettes of leaves and over the surface of the soil, to keep every part of the plant, except the roots, from contact with the soil. A dry calcareous loam is best. Where limestone can be had to mix with the soil, a much better display of flower and foliage can be obtained. It also helps to keep the plant dry in wint-r S B we gave it a dry, well-drained, sunny place, and now this androsace has spread like magic. Xo pieces of glass could be put ALPINE PLANTS FOR ROCK GARDENS 19 over it, and it needs none. Now it has been divided, and we have dozens, and it has most amusing ways. In the autumn, the outer leaves of each rosette disappear, and the center, which is where the verbena-like flowers are to come, puts on a lovely, gray velvet surface. In June, after flowering, this plant puts out runners like a strawberry. In this picture, the first bit is in bloom in a warm corner between the rocks. Here are the flowers more in detail. They are a pretty shade of pink. We now have fourteen varieties of androsace thriving, and they vary from vitallina, which is only one inch high and golden and easy, to foliosa, which is nearly a foot high. These plants have all proved hardy and even easy with us, except Androsace ladea and Androsace villosa. These two kinds are very tiny and grow slowly. A. villosa came through last winter without turning a hair and bloomed beautifully. Androsace carnea is a beautiful dark green moss, one inch high, on which appear in April the loveliest rosy flowers. This does better with us than in Mr. Correvon's great alpine collection in Switzerland. It likes leaf- mould and hates lime, and it has even sowed itself. All the andro- saces have interesting and beautiful foliage. In some, it is like the tiniest imaginable juniper; in others, there are gray rosettes like house-leeks. In addition to the many charms and beauties of alpine plants, I feel that they will be of special interest to Americans, because they can be grown without employing a gardener. Wages are already so very high here that only the rich can hope to afford to pay them. Yet there are thousands of flower enthusiasts who would like to garden, if they thought it could be done without much labor or expense. Once reasonably made, a rock garden can be kept up by a woman, even if she is not very strong. Weeding is the principal work, and has to be done carefully and patiently. Hut as the rock plants are usually grown on a slope or bank, the gar- dener is not forced to stoop and tire her back. We have rattan -rats of different heights, which are kept out of sight, and arc most comfortable for weeding. The only other work in a rock garden consists in watering, planting new plants, and saving and sowing seed. This question of sowing Beed we will consider a little later. 20 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY There are two principal modes of constructing a rock garden. A miniature valley, that is the soil dug out four or five feet and banked up on each side, or, if there is a natural slope, stones laid firmly in it to form irregular steps or shelves, where the plants may be put. Both plans are equally good. In the Botanical Garden at Kew, London, they have the sunken path with high banks on each side, and at the Horticultural Society's Gardens at Wisley, one hour's drive south of London, a big hillside has been used to make shelves and steps, and so show off a great collection of alpines. Here it has been easy to have a waterfall. At Kew they have just a pool next the path here and there. No cement has been used in these constructions, and it has not been found necessary. Cement may be used in retaining walls, as will be shown when that subject is reached, but for a rock garden the weight of earth is usually not too great to be held up by well-placed stones without cement; of course, large stones two or even three feet long are used for the foundations. For a very small rock garden the bank seems easier and more suitable, but in my own rock garden I have made the little valley which has the advantage of banks facing north and south. Unfor- tunately, the bed rock was so near the surface soil that we could excavate only about one foot. It is extremely important to build with solid foundation and a definite plan. The idea that any natural-looking mound of stones heaped together will do for growing alpines is a hopeless mis- take, because the plants must have definite and solid protection for their roots. Mr. Farrer says: "Stone in nature is never dis- connected; each is always, as it were, a syllable in a sentence. Remember that, urgently: boulder leads to boulder in an ordered sequence." There must be no cracks, air-spaces, or slipping down of the soil. These are absolutely fatal, and it is a thousand times easier to guard against them in the original construction than after a number of plants have started to cover the stones. When one has decided on a rock garden and has got the stones and earth together at the chosen spot, there is an almost overwhelm- ing temptation to build too quickly, and to put in what plants one has, for the sake of seeing the effect. This is a most dangerous way to proceed. We have suffered from it for years, and have lost ALPINE PLANTS FOR ROCK GARDENS 21 valuable plants in painful efforts at reconstruction. It is all a question of considering the roots of the plants. If they are planted on a slope with nothing much to hold the soil, it is bound to wash away in our heavy rains, and then roots will be uncovered, and plants will die. Alpines, though often less then an inch high need deep earth for their roots. Robinson says these tiny plants often have roots a yard long. Nothing is more certainly fatal than to plant them in a pocket with no depth. They may thrive for a time, but after the first drought, they die. The pockets or shelves where the plants are to go should not slope down toward the path. They should slope back a little toward the main construction to carry the rain into it. This is hard to achieve, because after the stones are fixed and the soil is in, one adds sand or fertilizer or lime, and, the whole shelf being small, the least addition to the soil will result in the wrong slope. Usually, it occurs in the very beginning, when the soil is being shoveled in. So the builder must not hesitate to take out earth until the levels are perfect. Here are pictures to show the difference: although the quaker ladies looked lovely on the wrong slope, that was only for one year, before the earth had had time to wash away. Also they are the most accommodating of ladies, besides being very lovely. In the second picture, flat shelves can be seen, where the plants can be perfectly happy. This picture shows a well-placed rock in the foreground. It is almost bare, because it has only just been put in, but the shelf or tiny terrace which it holds up, shows well what is meant by a proper level. On the left of the picture, the wrong kind of slope is plainly seen. This has been taken out, and flat pockets put in its place. In arranging the rocks, care should be taken that none are allowed to overhang. This would prevent the necessary rain reaching the plants underneath the rock. Every part of the rock garden should be so arranged that all the rain will be absorbed by it. Beside the absolute necessity of making the roots of the plants secure against all disturbances, and the length of the roots must be seen to be believed, the general effect is tar better and happier if the levels are made right. It is all the difference between a repose- ful picture and a restless one, slipping down. <>r everlastingly fixed. In this picture, the flat shell I sen on the left, and on the right 22 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY there is a sloping bank, now happily made flat. It must constantly be remembered that the plants and not the stones are the main point in rock gardens. The stones are merely the frame and must be kept from intruding into the picture. What Mr. Farrer means by " Boulder leads to boulder in an or- dered sequence, and treating your rocks as syllables in a sentence to make a coherent whole" is well illustrated in this picture. Several of the stones are disconnected, with the result that water has evidently washed soil from precious roots. Therefore the place is half bare. It will also be noticed that the few plants doing well are the ones with the stones protecting their roots from dis- turbance. For the amateur, simply wishing to experiment with the more easily grown rock-plants, so as to find out if he really has a taste for this form of gardening, the sloping bank in which half a dozen stones are partly buried, will do perfectly well as a beginning. It is far easier and pleasanter to begin modestly and gradually expand, than to lay out an ambitious rock work and then find that one has neither the skill nor the inclination to grow the right plants for it. The bank shown here was only partly devoted to growing al- pines; next spring, however, the rocks will be extended, and the annuals will not be there. Of course, there must be no formality about anything in the rock garden, no grass edges or anything of that sort. We do not need the stepping stones so useful in damp England, but a gravel path is useful, and dwarf plants often seed themselves and thrive in it. There is more moisture in the path than anywhere else, as the water is sure to trickle down. So, even though the path plants do occasionally get stepped upon, they are often very handsome. The whole surface of the rock garden should eventually be covered with plants, but one must be cautious, as some undesirable kinds are too free and are hard to get rid of. It is best, for a time at least, to submit to the ugliness of bare ground than to let one's precious pockets be over run with greedy, seedy plants. This bare ground about rare plants should be covered with small stones or broken rock to prevent evaporation, and they would also pre- vent stagnant moisture in winter. The stones are not pretty, and ALPINE PLANTS FOR ROCK GARDENS 23 a little soil sprinkled on top of them makes them less conspicuous. When our object is achieved and we have collected enough of the best plants, there will be no bare, stony places to offend our eyes. Here is one approach to the rock garden. Nothing in the least formal, and low plants are better than high ones. These forget- me-nots were glorious, because just beyond them, looking black in the photograph, was a solid mass of that wonderful hardy wall- flower, Erysimum aRioni. As far as I have been able to discover, there is only one shade of it, a deep rich yellow. It is biennial and grows about a foot high. Here are more forget-me-nots. These are with lilies-of-the-valley, and the whole plantation is surrounded with periwinkle. In the periwinkle we plant that typical alpine, the autumn crocus. I have often smiled as I read about its charms for the rock garden and wondered what these good authors thought of their autumn crocus in May, when it's great coarse leaves appear. By growing them in the periwinkle we are able to hide these leaves as soon as they show signs of drying. We roll them up and hide them under the periwinkle, and there they can dry up without being an eyesore. Here are the crocuses in September. Visitors, seeing a rock garden for the first time full of blooming alpines, are constantly exclaiming, "These cannot be hardy plants! They are too delicate, too brilliant to have lived all through our icy winters." These Saxifraga cordifolia were particularly brilliant last April, a vivid coral pink, and you can see in this picture that there were no leaves on the trees when they bloomed. Here is another alpine beauty, a Primula denticulate caskmeriana. It sows itself, and, given half shade and water during dry weather, it is perfectly easy to grow. The old-fashioned way of having gardens bare in the early spring, except for narcissus and tulips, lias resulted in their being accepted so, as a natural law, and when people hear of twenty or thirty varieties being in bloom in early April they are amazed. Alpine plants usually bloom in the early spring. In the moun- tains the summers are very short; often only a few weeks from the time when the snow melts to the first storms of antnmn, so the Bowers must appear immediately, it" they are to ripen seed and continue their species. There are summer-blooming alpines like 24 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY the large and lovely family of Campanulas, but, though the plants are perfectly hardy and easy to grow, the flowers do not survive our July sunshine very long, so that visitors, seeing a rock garden after June, may well be disappointed over the lack of color and brilliance. Linum perenne is a lovely summer-flowering plant, rather large perhaps, but the blue flowers succeed each other for a very long time, and the foliage is soft and graceful. These alpine pinks bloom all through June and are the greatest joy because of their fragrance. Their foliage is always an addition, being soft mats of that gray green shade which is so becoming to all flowers. Here are more June flowers, Campanula longistyla, a biennial like the Canterbury bell, but a real beauty and easily raised from seed. The little white flower above is Silene rupestris, one of the easiest plants to grow and always an addition wherever it sows itself. The lower white flower is Armaria montana, not at all easy with us, but in the shade it consents *to thrive. Above is the foliage of the Saxifraga cordifolia, which you saw a few minutes ago. In April, May, and June, there are always masses of flowers in the rock garden, and the early flowers are after all the ones we enjoy most, after being deprived of them all winter long, and before the heat in the mornings and the mosquitoes in the evening drive us indoors. Another very important reason why rock gardens should become known in this country is that a rock garden can be made on the smallest piece of ground. My own rock garden, which already boasts of over 350 varieties, is only about 13 yards long and 8 yards wide. Mr. Reginald Farrer, in his charming book "The Rock Garden," says it is really by far the cheapest and most graceful form of gardening. "It has become, and is hourly still more universally becoming, the pet passion of the man who has small means and only a small plot of ground to play with." And this in England, where labor was so cheap. Position. A rock garden does not look well in a landscape or near the formal lines of a building or a road, and it should be put in a secluded ALPINE PLANTS FOR ROCK GARDENS 25 corner, where it can be nursed and enjoyed intimately. The late owner of Holland House, London, was so fond of alpines that he planted small groups among stones on either side of the garden door of that magnificent Elizabethan Palace, where they looked entirely out of place. The suburban home should have a bit of ground at the back, if its owner wants a rock garden. Stones are bound to look irregular and inharmonious in formal surroundings, as can be seen when rocks are left in a lawn. Harmony with surroundings is the funda- mental law of successful gardening. In a rock garden, one can get closer to nature as she shows herself on the mountains, than in any other way, if one has not the land for woods and streams and pastures. Alpine plants are practically all perennial, permanent, and stationary, not popped in out of a greenhouse only to die in the first frosts. These temporary plants have no individuality, no opportunity to adapt themselves to their surroundings, and though they may be beautiful, they are not interesting. Alpines take time to develop, and show their true character, but once they do this, the happy owner, who has given them their chance, can feel that he has real nature to enjoy, some- thing superior to the learned combinations of the landscape gar- dener. As has been said, the rock garden does not look well near a building. But in the back yard of a suburban plot, a rock garden will transform into an actual source of pleasure what is usually the dullest corner. It is essential to put the rock garden in an open situation and not under the drip and shade of trees or overhanging and greedy shrubs. Shade from a building or wall would do no harm, it it were only for half the day, and it is a great help with our tropical summers to have at least part of the rock garden facing north. Many plants, such as campanulas, mossy saxifrages, and androsacefl (rock jasmin) do better in half shade, and the flowers last longer when not exposed to long hours of sunshine. In a small place, if it is found necessary to put the rock garden Dear a tree, whose rOOtfl would be sure to come after the good soil provided for the alpine-. a small wall descending as deep, or somewhat deeper, than the roots of the tree, and made of rough concrete, would be a great help in keeping the tree roots in their place. 26 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY Edgings. A rock construction is not by any means the only place in which alpines may be grown with pleasure and success. The larger and more easily grown varieties can be very effectively used for edging plants, and as most of them are more or less evergreen, they look extremely well in that position. Edgings are very important, and a beautiful border without a satisfactory edging is about as pleasing as a beautiful dress without a collar. In Europe, where turf and lawns are very much at home because of the damp climate, and where labor is so cheap, grass edgings are commonly used, but here lawn grass is not at home. It is an artificial and highly expensive decoration, and if it is in narrow strips with edges, which must be constantly trimmed, it hardly seems worth the trouble and expense it costs, especially as it is brown and ugly for nearly half the year here, while in Europe it is always green. Near a building, as has been said, formal lines are necessary. In such positions cut stone edgings look well and hold up small plants perfectly. Cut stone edgings are expensive, but the expense ends when they are bought. The clipping and trimming of grass edgings never ends. For the greater part of the garden, native stone partly buried and carefully chosen to look more or less even in height will serve perfectly, and as one wishes to cover the edgings with flowering and often evergreen plants, minor irregularities in the stones are soon hidden. Many varieties, such as the evergreen candytuft, double arabis, Dianthus deltoides, and Dianthus pluma- rius, forget-me-not, Campanula carpatica, Alyssum saxatile, etc., etc. do splendidly as edging plants and these are too easy and free grow- ing for the rock garden. They nearly all seed freely and would be a danger to tiny plants one or two inches high. While the rock garden is new, and before many plants have been gotten together, some of these coarser plants could be carefully used on the less desirable parts of the construction, the highest part for instance, which is the most exposed to heat and cold and drought. But care should be taken not to allow them to seed down among the treasures. Some people think Oenothera speciosa a suitable rock plant, but though lovely as edging for a herbaceous border, it is far too free ALPINE PLANTS FOR ROCK GARDENS 27 and vigorous to plant among alpines. Heather, on the other hand, can well be used in both ways. For a formal edging near a house Erica carnea has no rival, where box is not hardy. It can stand any amount of winter sun if a few evergreen branches are put over it from December to April, and it can be clipped into a formal shape and is never more than six inches high. Its greatest quality, however, is in the flowers, and the picture shows how freely these are produced. The buds form in September and are plainly to be seen all through the winter, while in April, after the first warm day, they burst into bloom, a lovely warm pink. After a couple of weeks, the flowers turn magenta and are less pretty, but if one is careful to have no clashing color near, they are a joy for nearly a month, and all this during terribly cold and often snowy April days. They are often seen blooming bravely through two inches of snow and seem none the worse when the warm spring sun melts it away. In the rock garden, they are just as valuable. The same rule applies to these stone edgings as to plants in the rock garden proper, the stones protect the plants from drought and frost and give them a chance to show off their flowers to the best advantage, especially if the stones are gray and the flowers pink. Wall Gardens. In laying out a place, if it is larger than a small suburban plot, there are usually slopes more or less steep to be dealt with. These are often ignored, treated as if they were flat, and planted with grass, shrubs, and trees. If the slope is at all steep the water drains off it too fast to allow grass to be green very long in our dry summers. Then one often sees trees and shrubs look as if they were slipping down these banks. Nothing is less np ful or less satisfying than this effect, and it is far better to I the fact of the slope in laying out the place, and to put in re- taining walls. If several such walla are used, one below the others, small terraces are formed, such as one see- in Switzerland and in Italy, and these give far better foothold to whatever plants one desires to grow than b doping bank with the earth continually washing away from the root-. It i- the same principle which we 28 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY were considering in the construction of the rock garden. The reader has only to look about his neighborhood to see the slipping down effect of trees and shrubs, and how poor the grass is on a sunny bank. If, to avoid this, retaining walls are put in, a new field for the planting of alpines appears, and we come to what in England is called Wall Gardening. There dry walls are used. In this country, a dry wall, meaning a wall built of stones without cement, gets pushed out of shape by our frosts and looks in time like a wall in a nightmare, not at all a suitable border for a road or decoration for a lawn. Miss G. Jekyll and other English authori- ties recommend dry walls most highly, but they have very little frost to contend with. In this country one can manage by having the wall thoroughly cemented at the foundations and for eighteen inches from the ground. Then, if half the other stones are made fast with cement, say roughly every alternate square foot, the other half may be planted and will give an excellent effect, probably quite as good as if it were entirely covered with plants. It is very important in making such a wall to watch the men constructing it, otherwise they will throw in large stones, instead of earth mixed with small stones, behind the wall. The whole idea of a dry wall is that the plants should be able to root through it into the bank of earth behind. If, when the tender roots push back, they find only stones, the plants will naturally die. It is necessary to enrich the soil and see that it has humus well mixed with it, so that the plants can thrive. In building the dry wall, as much care should be taken to ram down the soil and leave no air spaces as in constructing the rock garden. It is really the same idea, and it is also necessary to have the stones tip upward a little, so that the rain may reach the plants between them. This is called a battered wall and can be done by putting small stones between the front of larger ones and carefully filling and ramming the crevices between the soil. When finished, this should all be perfectly firm. Many and varied are the plants which can be grown in the re- taining wall, and if it faces north our native plants, such as ferns, columbine, the small two-leaved Solomon seal (Smilacina bi- folia), and violets, with a few harebells, would make a lovely ALPINE PLANTS FOR ROCK GARDENS 29 picture. It is best, as in all gardening, to put a good-sized group of one variety before going on to plant the next. A confusion of several kinds jumbled together would probably look about as artistic as the bouquets thrown into carriages by peasant children abroad. A wonderful help can be had from gray-leaved plants, and among rock plants their names are legion: alyssum, arabis, achillea, artemisia, Stachys lanata, and cerastium, to mention a few of the easier kinds. The common way of repeating the same plants at intervals along a wall is as fatal to the picturesque or natural effect as it is in the herbaceous border. It must have originated in the entirely unimaginative mind of a hard-working gardener, who thought much more of growing plants by the hundred than of observing the ways nature had with them. Nature usually plants in groups and never in rows, let it be noted bv the way. Mr. Robinson says there are many alpine plants now cultivated with difficulty in frames, which any beginner may grow on walls. Now that is certainly encouraging to the beginner considering a wall garden, and then it is such fun to see the delicate and lovely little jewel-like plants so close to one's eyes. If the retaining wall is not too high, a delightful opportunity is offered by its flat top. In this picture, Cerastium tommtosiun can be seen draping the top of a low retaining wall, and it makes a pretty fringe or edging for the upright-growing irises. Here is the cerastium not yet in bloom. You can see how it grows between the stones. Growing Alpines from Seed. It has been mentioned that among the four principal considera- tions in keeping up a rock garden are the saving and sowing of seed. This seems to be a job particularly suitable for women. It requires some thought and a good deal of time, as it is very neeessary to collect seeds at the right moment, when they are dry, and before they begin to drop, but it is not tiring or hard work, and it i-^ very interesting. All the authorities agree that the best and healthiest plants are those raised from seed, and one's own seed 30 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY is the freshest and most amusing to deal with. In this way, one is constantly improving the different varieties by only saving- seeds from the best specimens of a given kind. At present and until the public demands more of the dealers, seeds of many of even the most easily grown varieties must be imported. Fortunately this is easy, not at all like importing Paris gowns, and Mr. Correvon has all the varieties in cultivation for sale at very low prices. There are about six thousand different kinds of plants mentioned in his general catalogue, and nine-tenths of these have been raised from seed at Geneva and are therefore acclimated to low altitudes. It has been our custom to import and sow about fifty varieties each winter, getting them into the ground as soon as possible after New Years. We sow the larger varieties in cold frames and the smaller and more difficult ones in pans or pots, plunged in earth in the cold frames. After sowing, the seeds are covered with snow, as Mr. Correvon says it helps them to germinate. He recommends soil composed of one-third peat, one-third loam, and one-third sand, granitic or lime rubble, according to the variety. One of the keenest pleasures of the alpine gardener is to visit this frame in the spring and see the hundreds of little new treasures at his disposal. Many, of course, have not come up in such a short time and must be kept over sometimes for another year before they germinate. In that case it is best to remove them to a half-shady place, for if the tiny plants should appear, they might be burnt up during one scorching day in July. Freshly gathered seed germinates very much more quickly and surely than old seed, so it is best to sow the seed we save ourselves as soon as possible. This also results in the plants making a good show of flowers the following season. After collecting seed from the early-blooming alpines, we usually make a first showing in June, then in July other varieties will have ripened their seed, and we sow again. Some are sown in the open ground, the sturdier kinds like the mountain pinks, Lychnis flos-cuculi and columbines ; others, smaller and more delicate ones, are sown in the cold frame. The ripening seed looks untidy, and there is one owner of a beautiful rock garden who never allows any seed to ripen. But, until one has enough of a given variety, it seems so much more reasonable ALPINE PLANTS FOR ROCK GARDENS 31 to save and sow the fresh seed than to keep on buying plants. After a couple of years, one could grow a few plants in reserve, solely for the purpose of getting seed from them. A good deal of leaf mould or humus helps seed to germinate, as it keeps the soil open and porous. Advantages over England. We have all heard and read a great deal about the enormous advantages of gardening in England. After gardening there for ten summers, I have come to the conclusion that if the same amount of skill and time were spent here as is spent in England on gardens, we should have very nearly as much garden beauty as they have. Not the same beauty of spreading lawns and hedges of holly and yew, but wonderful flowering trees and shrubs, which either cannot be grown in Europe, or present miserable objects with very few flowers in English gardens. Our glorious laurel I have seen there languishing in pots, and taking into consideration its many and wonderful beauties, there is surely no European shrub to compare with it. Our native rhododendrons and azaleas are also plants. of incomparable garden value. In England, beds of peaty soil are made, in which these plants, with some of our andromedas, huckleberries, and lilies, are grown, and as there is difficulty about making them thrive, they are very greatly admired. Here, on the contrary, people worry over box, English ivy, tender retinosporas, and other European varieties, instead of giving a proper place and setting to our own plants. From lack of knowledge and imagination, European plants and methods have been used in this totally different climate with deplorable results, and vice versa, American plants abroad art often far from being beautiful. Hut, if the choice of suitable plants has a threat deal to do with poor gardens in America, the lack of trained helpers in gardens has a still more unfortunate effect. A trained gardener gets five or six times the wages here that he is accustomed to receive abroad. And then, who does lie have to help him? Instead of under-gar- deners, hoping to rise to be heads in their turn, and trained in 32 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY garden work from the time they were small boys, he has usually to put up with Italians fresh from working on a railroad track or in an iron foundry. These men often speak little English and have absolutely no knowledge of plant life. Where there are greenhouses trained helpers are usually found, but in a hardy garden one gardener with men accustomed to the roughest day labor are customary. Now how can it be supposed that beautiful gardens can result from this system? The head gardener is only human, and if he is obliged to do all the planting, sowing of seed, handling of seedlings in their various stages, moving of trees and shrubs, has to remember about all the watering, and pick vegetables and flowers, it is obvious that very much must remain undone. This situation is also made far worse by the fact that, owing to our hot summers and cold winters, more than one-half of the most important planting has to be done in May. In April, the ground is usually sticky and wet from melting snow, and in June it is too hot. It has also seemed to me that head gardeners as a rule feel they have done their full duty, if only they can produce in a greenhouse roses and carnations as large and stiff as the average florist has for sale. They are often unashamed of the most deplorable looking borders. When rich people here learn to care for hardy flowers as they are cared for abroad, our gardens will be just as beautiful, only they will not be so numerous, because the high price of labor makes them impossible, except for the very rich. This is why I have talked against lawns and clipped edges. If our one and only gardener spends his time tending them, he cannot be growing new plants, however simple their cultivation may be, and it is by continually sowing new seed and adding fresh beauty that our gardens remain interesting. THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM. By Edward I. Farrixgtox, Weymouth Heights, Mass. Delivered before the Society, with stereopticon illustrations, January 12, 1918. "For a thousand years and then another thousand years, and so on forever," reads the solemn agreement by which the City of Boston enters into contract with Harvard University to care for and perpetuate the Arnold Arboretum in Jamaica Plain, undoubt- edly the greatest tree museum in the world. Curiously enough, the great majority of people, even in Boston, know nothing about the Arboretum or its purposes. This is distinctly unfortunate, for the loss is not the Arboretum's, but that of the public which should profit by its work and enjoy its beauty. Expert landscape gardeners and nurserymen know the Arbore- tum as a clearing house of knowledge. They use it. The Arnold Arboretum is the only place in this country where data on the comparative hardiness of woody plants covering a long period of years can be found. Perhaps if the Arboretum were not so modest about tooting its own horn, it would receive greater credit for what it has done. Within its borders nature is working miracles which must have a profound effect on all gardens of the future. Every fruit grower has an interest in the Arboretum. Future years will yield finer Apples and Pears and Peaches than any you yet have tasted. They may come from crosses with Chinese trees intro- duced by Arboretum explorers. We know little so far about the possibilities of nuts as a food. Yet the time may come, and before long, too, when the whole world will be eating nuts. Practically every nut tree which will grow in this climate is now to be found in the Arnold Arboretum. tor its value to the home gardens of the country, nobody can estimate it. Every plant brought from foreign lands — and they number thousands — if suited to this clima* ^sted and re- 33 34 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY ported upon in the Arboretum trial grounds. In this way the people of the country are protected from losses and discourage- ments. Where else can the public learn the secrets of the Rhodo- dendrons, the eccentricities of the Azaleas, the varied habits of the Viburnums, and the unexpected values of the Lilacs? How are all these new things obtained? A book of romantic adventure might be written in answer to that question. Plant hunters sent out by the Arboretum have penetrated to corners of the world where the foot of a white man has never trodden before. The most famous of these plant hunters is Ernest H. Wilson, who has given hundreds of plants to the world through the Arnold Arboretum. How he rolled down a mountain side in western China and lay for weeks in a mission hut is now a well-known story. Among the most notable plants introduced by the Arnold Arbore- tum are Azalea Kaempferi, the tree Lilac, the Sargent Cherry, the climbing Hydrangea, and the Japanese Barberry. The Arboretum had its origin in the imagination of George B. Emerson and the generosity of James Arnold. Mr. Arnold, a New Bedford merchant, left $100,000 to be used for horticultural and agricultural purposes. Mr. Emerson was one of the trustees in charge of this fund. He it was who formulated the plan by which Harvard University took the bequest and turned over a part of the Bussey farm for an arboretum in which every tree and shrub suited to this climate should be grown. Later an agreement was made with the city of Boston whereby the latter contracted to lay out a system of walks and drives, police the grounds, and pay whatever taxes might be levied. In return the Arboretum was made virtually a part of the park system. This great tree museum now occupies 220 acres of hill, valley, and meadow. For the most part the trees have been arranged in family groups so that they can be studied to the best advantage. Single indi- viduals of the native trees have been planted far enough away from the groups to make possible their full and free development. The Arboretum is designed for serious study, yet everywhere the attempt has been made to group the trees and shrubs in such a way that the natural features of the trees may be preserved. Much can be seen by walking or driving around the public roads, but much is also missed. The only way to get all that the Arbore- THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 35 turn offers is to leave the main drives for the grass covered paths which lead to the smaller groups. With map at hand, it is an easy matter to locate any general group of trees and shrubs. Yet many of the foreign plants now on trial do not appear. Coming down Bussey Hill, for example; at this point there is a fine collec- tion of Chinese shrubs and close by the celebrated Cedars of Lebanon. The gates of the Arboretum are open from sunrise until sunset. Everybody is free to enter. You can spend an hour or a day there, with profit and with pleasure. Take your luncheon and eat it on the grass under the waving trees if you care to do so. Follow the grassy paths; they lead to unexpected beauties. You will find every tree and shrub tagged with its right name. Take a note book along and jot down the names of such plants as you would like in your own garden. If you want any special information, stop at the Administration building near the Jamaica Plain entrance, and it will be given you. This building was erected for the Arboretum by the late Horatio Hollis Hunnewell, whose garden and pinetum at Wellesley are known to all students of trees. Here are thirty-two thousand bound volumes, together with many pamphlets, constituting a library of incomparable value. The herbarium is believed to be the richest and most complete collection of material representing the coniferous plants of the world which has ever been made. It contains also a collection of the woods of North America. The dried specimens are stored in fireproof metal cabinets, and all are so carefully indexed that any one among the hundreds of thousand^ can be located in less than one minute. In one corner of the upper floor of the Administration building is the office of Professor Charles S. Sargent, the first and only director of the Arboretum, and the man most responsible for it- development. It was Professor Sargent who nursed the institution through its early days of stress and trouble. Nothing but his enthusiasm could have withstood the depressing public indifference and the lack of expert cooperation. It was a big task to lay the foundations of an institution which is to last two thousand year- and so on forever. His wisdom and foresight have made it what it is today. I lis monument has been 1 while he yet live 36 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY The natural way in which interesting specimens are displayed is to be found on the boundary walls, where hardy vines are trained. Not only are the vines themselves offered for study in this way, but the manner in which they can be used to the best advantage is shown. Professor Sargent takes particular pride in the Grape vines growing on the walls, for in his opinion many people fail to realize the decorative qualities of these vines. The Bitter Sweets and many other native vines are also grown. The only formal planting in the Arboretum is to be found in the shrub garden, near the Forest Hills entrance. Here hardy shrubs in great variety are arranged in parallel beds on the only piece of level ground which the Arboretum boasts. These shrubs have been so placed that the visitor can easily compare all the species of any genus in a short time. In this way he is able to select the particular variety which he may want for any particular purpose. Unfortunately, the space which can be devoted to this collection is too small to contain all the shrubs which can be grown in the Arboretum. The Dogwoods, Rhododendrons, Viburnums, and the like, will be found in other places, usually near the trees to which they are related. The shrub garden contains probably the best collection of wild Roses in the country. Among the Roses now growing in the shrub garden, Rosa multi- flora cathayensis is of particular interest. It is the Rose from which sprang the Crimson Rambler, which has long been cultivated by the Chinese and came to this country by way of Japan and England. Likewise it is the progenitor of the Seven Sisters Rose, which used to be common in country gardens. This Rose is established in the Arboretum, flowering and ripening its fruit every year. Rosa Hugonis or Father Hugo's Rose was found by a missionary in China and came to this country by way of England. It promises to prove a splendid Rose for New England gardens, being perfectly hardy and bearing oceans of yellow flowers which are set so closely on the branches that they touch. It is a pity that the Arboretum has no room for a complete Rose garden, where every species, variety, and hybrid, old and new, might be cultivated. There is genuine need for just such a garden somewhere and the Arbore- tum already has a nucleus. How better could any wealthy man THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 37 perpetuate his name than by providing the Arboretum with the means of establishing a real Rose garden, such as exists nowhere else in the world. Some years ago Mr. J. G. Jack, of the Arboretum staff, visited the far East, and although he spent only a short time in Korea, he discovered several interesting new plants, among them Dier villa florida venusta, perhaps the handsomest of all the species, varieties, and hybrids of the Weigela. It is a shrub which grows five feet tall, and in Spring is completely covered with dense clusters of rosy-pink flowers from an inch and a half to two inches long. It is perfectly hardy, too, which cannot be said of all the "Weigelas. It grows rapidly, and no shrub known bears larger crops of flowers. It is one of the purposes of the Arboretum to search out the best varieties among the different shrubs, testing them for hardiness and reporting on their availability for northern gardens. Repeated tests have shown that many of the Deutzias, handsome as they are, are not suited to cultivation in New England. It is not often that plants are actually killed, but they are frozen back so hard that they do not bloom. Deutzia parvifolia, Dcutzia crenata, and a few others are known to be perfectly hardy. Several Deutzias from western China are now being tested in the Arbore- tum, and it is hoped that some of them will prove valuable ad- ditions to New England gardens. The Arnold Arboretum has the largest and most complete collec- tion of Loniceras, or Honeysuckles, in the world, just as Mr. Render, of its staff, is the leading Lonicera expert in the world. Loniccra Korolkorii is a shrub of peculiar elegance. A bush Honeysuckle with grayish leaves is a novelty. At times this gray is so intense as to be almost blue, while again it is nearer gr \ iew it in the morning when covered with dew, and it looks as though encrusted with a kind of enameled jewelry. Many different Honeysuckles have been tested out at the Arboretum, diml v« 11 a- those having a bush form. Among the newer arrivals i- Lnnicrra Hcnnji, one of the few evergreen climbers hardy in this climate. baria arborea is ■ discovery of Mr. Wilson's ■ ehanning shrub if given plantyof ell n As I matter of fact it will insist upon having all the room it needs, because it just naturally 38 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY moves out and smothers anything in its way. The bloom of Sorbaria arborea comes along in June, and lasts through most of the Summer. There is an early burst of bloom, but it is seldom that a large number of flowers are open at one time. They make a floral procession which is as interesting as it is pleasing. Judging from the specimens in the Arboretum, this is not a particularly good plant for small gardens, but is excellent for use on large estates. There would be fewer disappointments if amateurs in general would choose some other variety of Privet than the common Cali- fornia Privet when planting a hedge. There are some sections where California Privet thrives, but in the North it is very likely to be badly winter-killed. If you will visit the shrub garden at the Arboretum you will find half a dozen varieties growing side by side, and can study them at your leisure. Most of the Privets have attractive blossoms if they are not kept trimmed, while in the Fall they yield a profusion of black and blue berries. Ligustrum Ibota is a most desirable hedge Privet for this section. It is also attractive when grown as a specimen or in mass planting. Among the plants introduced by the Arboretum from central and western China, through the explorations of Mr. Wilson, none give greater promise as garden plants for the North than some of the Cotoneasters, of which twenty species and varieties are now established here. Cotoneaster hupehensis is a species with very showy flowers and is perhaps the most worthwhile shrub for north- ern gardens which Mr. Wilson has brought back from the far East. It is handsome in the Fall as well as in the Spring, for then its branches are covered with scarlet, lustrous fruits. Several of the Cotoneasters grow six or eight feet high, while others form dense mats of prostrate stems, but nearly all have dark green and very lustrous leaves, which retain their color until the late Autumn. Besides the collection in the shrub garden, there is another con- taining the newest Chinese Cotoneasters in a long bed on the southern slope of Bussey Hill. Spiraea nipponica or bracteata is a particularly handsome and hardy Japanese shrub, which is not known in American gardens as well as it should be. The family of Spiraeas is a very large one, and the amateur finds it difficult to choose intelligently among the varieties offered by nurserymen. It will help greatly to make a THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 39 little study of the plants found in the Arboretum collection as they come into bloom. You will find that some of the least well known are among the best. An unusually good specimen of the climbing Hydrangea, Hy- drangea peiiolaris, is to be found growing on the brick wall of the Administration Building, to which it clings as firmly as Ivy. This is also a Japanese plant, and the only climbing vine with conspicu- ous flowers which can be grown on a wall without artificial support in the Northern States. It can also be used to climb up the trunks of trees, and individuals seventy or eighty feet high are not un- common. Its value as a wall covering is increased by the early appearance of dark green leaves, which are nearly full grown before there is a sign of a leaf on any of the Virginia Creepers. Magnolias are among the showiest of flowers, and several varieties have been planted around the Administration Building. Magnolia macrophylla is one of the most interesting species. It has the largest leaves and the largest flowers of any tree which grows outside of the tropics. The leaves are over thirty inches long, and eight inches wide, while blossoms a foot in diameter are not un- usual. These flowers are creamy white, fragrant, and with a very deep cup. They may be called without exaggeration nature's lodging houses for the rose bugs. I have tipped up one of these blossoms and had scores of these insects come tumbling out. Professor Sargent says that planting this Magnolia in the garden is a good way to trap the rose bugs to keep them away from the Roses. Of course it is impossible to duplicate at the Arnold Arboretum anything like the wonderful Cherry blossom shows which have long been a feature of Japanese life. Nevertheless, the display along the drive leading from the Forest Hills entrance is worth while going a long distance 1 to see. It is passing Strange that nunc use is not made of these ornamental flowering trees in home gardens. The Primus fubhirtella, lias perhaps the most beautiful flowers of all the Cherries. It blooms profusely every year, and holds its blos- soms much longer than any other single-flowered Cherry. Un- fortunately, it cannot be multiplied by seed, as the seed produ an entirely different plant. The only way to propagate Frvma subkirteUa is by grafting or by cut tip 40 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY The Sargent Cherry, or as it is now commonly called, Primus serrulata sachalinensis, is one of the most important trees in north- ern Japan and Saghalin, where it is used for lumber. When it is in flower it is the handsomest of all the large size Cherries. This is one of the most important introductions made by the Arboretum, both as an ornamental tree and as a timber tree. The Cherry plantation in the Arboretum is being extended, and in years to come will doubtless make a show approximating to some extent that which attracts the Japanese by thousands to the Cherry orchards in the Spring. A large number of Cherry trees have also been supplied to Rochester, N. Y., where several acres in the public parks are being devoted to their culture. Hardly second to the Cherries in beauty are the Crabapples, which are also grouped near the Forest Hills entrance, with a second collection on Peters Hill. These Crabapples make a won- derful burst of bloom in the Spring, and ought to be better known to garden makers everywhere. Malus floribunda is a tree without a country. That it was sent to Europe from Japan more than sixty years ago is well known, but nobody knows with certainty from what country Japan adopted it. We can only assume that it came from China, like many of the other crabs. In any event, it is wonderfully hand- some, never failing to cover itself with masses of beautiful flowers, deep rose in the bud, but turning to white after the petals open. This little tree is far better for home gardens than many of the shrubs commonly used. Professor Sargent calls it one of the handsomest and most desirable small trees which can be grown in the northern United States. Malus Sargentii is another small crab, the diminutive size of which makes it a good subject for small gardens. It was discov- ered by Professor Sargent on the borders of a salt marsh in northern Japan. Although rarely growing more than a few feet high, its branches spread out over a space ten or twelve feet in diameter. One attractive feature about this crab is that its fruit remains on the branches until Spring. Trees raised from seed gathered from plants in a large collection like the one in the Arboretum rarely resemble the parent. While this makes trouble for the botanist, it has a distinct advantage for THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 41 the gardener, often resulting in the development of beautiful new forms, which come spontaneously. Such a natural hybrid is Malus Arnoldiana. It appeared a few years ago among the seed- lings of floribunda, and promises to be a welcome addition to our gardens. Many persons consider this to be the handsomest of all ornamental crabs. Its flowers and fruit are twice as large as those of Mains floribunda. Some of the Pear trees are almost as attractive as the crabs. Pyrus Calleryana is not among the handsomest and the fruit is of no value. It is believed, though, that this tree offers special advantages to American pomologists, who are seeking a stock resistant to blight on which to graft garden Pears. Pear trees are natives of Europe, China, and the Himalayas. There are no native American Pears. Some of the Chinese species have been growing in the Arboretum since 1882, when Dr. Bretschneider sent seeds there from Peking. It is when the Lilacs are in bloom that the greatest number of people visit the Arnold Arboretum, probably because of the fame which has been given the Lilac show by the newspapers. Lilacs are used as a border along one side of Bussey Road, not far from the Forest Hills entrance. Many people speak of this section of the road as Lilac Drive. In late May, when the Lilac show is at its height, thousands of people come to the Arboretum to see the magnificent burst of bloom. Altogether, though, there are almost two months in which the Lilacs are in flower in the collection, including nearly every species and variety of the common Lilac alone, with twenty species in addition and several hybrids. In his various expeditions, Mr. Wilson has discovered a Dumber of extra-fine Lilacs, one of the best being Syringa Jvlumae, a hardy and very shapely shrub, with dark green foliage, and compact clusters of fragrant, pale rose-colored flowers. It is particularly valuable as it blooms later than most true Lilac-. While sw< it lacks the strong fragrance of pubescent, which is the most ti rant of all the Lilacs. In respect to perfume, however, even pubescent will soon have a rival, for during the last trip of Mr. W ilson through the far East, he discovered a Lilac in Korea which he says is more fragrant than any which has yet been grown on the American continent. In about five years thifl Statement can be 42 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY tested by Boston people, for the seeds brought back by Mr. Wilson should have produced flowering plants by that time. Syringa villosa is a very handsome Lilac with one point distinctly in its favor. It blooms late, thus prolonging the flowering season of the Lilacs. On the other hand, it has an odor which is distinctly disagreeable. Villosa makes a fine, round-topped bush, and if you refrain from sniffing the blossoms, you will find it a splendid acquisition. Look it up next Spring when the Lilacs are in bloom. A remarkable Lilac known as Syringa reflexa grows on the mountains of western Hupeh, in central China, where it was discovered by Mr. Wilson several years ago. It is especially interesting because it is the only Lilac with pendent flower clusters. There are scores of Lilac varieties in commerce, but trials made at the Arboretum show that the list of kinds suited to the average garden can easily be culled to a dozen. It will be worth the while of any garden maker fond of lilacs to visit the Arboretum next Spring, when the flowers are in bloom, and note those which please him most. Then, by consulting an Arboretum Bulletin, he can find whether they are suitable for culture in home gardens. On the south side of Lilac Drive the Viburnums are grouped, and they, too, make a remarkable display over a long season. The Viburnums are highly valuable, because they give us flowers very early in the season, as well as handsome fruit in the Fall. Four American species have been used freely in the roadside plantations of the Arboretum. One of the most satisfactory is Viburnum cassinoides, & native New England shrub with a broad, round top, and thick lustrous leaves. The flowers are cream white and the fruit, while pink for a short time, gradually changes color to dark blue. Sometimes green, pink, and blue berries are to be found on the same cluster at the same time. Another native Viburnum is pubescens, which deserves much wider recognition on the part of landscape gardeners than it has yet received. The success achieved by the use of native shrubs of this character in the Arboretum planting indicates the possi- bilities which our own plants possess as subjects for landscape work on a large scale. Viburnum pubescens, especially, grows in limestone soil, yet lime is not necessary for it, and it can be grown over most of the country. This species has small pointed leaves, and THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 43 compact clusters of white flowers, followed by shining black fruits. No other Viburnum flowers more profusely. In the collection of Viburnums are many representatives of western Asia. Unfortu- nately, however, the group does not include the beautiful evergreen species of southern Japan and China, which are not hardy in New England. The most interesting specimens in the collection are those which belong to the Opulus group, Viburnum Sargentii being one of the best representatives. It is hardy, shapely, and the flowers are pure white. When this Viburnum is blooming it is the most beautiful of all its class. Seek it out next June at the side of Bussey Road. The Azaleas occupy a place of their own on the side of both the Bussey and Hemlock Hills. The most popular collection is on the former elevation, where a large number of the plants are grouped along Azalea path. Few flowers in the Arboretum attract more attention or give greater pleasure. Most gorgeous of all the Azaleas is Kaempferi, which was introduced by the Arboretum into the gardens of the United States and Europe in 1893. It was first raised from seed collected by Professor Sargent in Japan. It is perfectly hardy, but the flowers are so delicate, when exposed to the sun, that they soon fade. The greatest beauty of Azalea Kaempferi is obtained when the plants are grown in deep or partial shade. In introducing .izalca Kaempferi to New England the Arnold Arboretum has given our gardens a prize not readily excelled. It is a magnificent plant, and in time will be grown in great numbers, as landscape gardeners come to know it better. Moreover, it is just as adaptable to small gardens as to large estates. No one living in Boston should fail to see the Azalea show at the Arboretum. Another Azalea which makes a wonderful hurst of bloom is poukhanense which was introduced into the Arboretum by Mr. Jack on the occasion of his trip to Korea some years ago. It was named for Poukhan, a Korean mountain, where it has been found by a French missionary. A beautiful round-topped, compact shrub, with large rosy-pink and fragrant flower-, it seems to 1" perfectly hardy anywhere in the Arboretum, where it has been flowering for several years. It should prow a good plant for New England garden-, and people who are interested in Rhododendron- 44 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 4 of all kinds would do well to seek it out when it flowers next May. It is to be found on the upper side of Azalea Path. One of the big floral displays at the Arboretum is made when the Rhododendrons come into flower. The Rhododendron collection borders the road at the base of Hemlock Hill. Unfortunately, a great many people miss it because they go to the Forest Hills or Jamaica Plain entrances, which are a long way off. By leaving the elevated train at Forest Hills and walking up South Street to the South Street entrance, the Rhododendrons are reached in a very few minutes. The Arboretum collection is so extensive, and the plants arranged so skilfully that it offers an unparalleled opportunity to become familiar with the best varieties, as well as with the methods to follow in the culture of Rhododendrons in this climate. There are three native American species and one other, Rhododendron Smirnowii, from the Caucasus, which are perfectly hardy, and can be planted with confidence. Rhododendron album grandiflorum is a white flowered form of a hybrid cataivbiense. Many hybrids have been produced by crossing Rhododendron cataivbiense with various Himalayan species, as well as with the native Rhododendron maximum. Unhappily, only comparatively few of these hybrids are hardy in this country, even in exceptional positions like that in the Arboretum, where the beds are protected by Hemlock Hill from the sun in March and April. Of the three native Rhododendrons, maximum and catawbiense are well known. The third, carolinianum, is much less generally cultivated, but it is to be found growing to perfection in the Arbore- tum. It, too, comes from the Carolina mountains, but has a dwarf habit. Its flowers are grown in profusion, and seldom show any trace of rust. There is every reason to believe that this introduc- tion will fill a long felt want for a hardy dwarf Rhododendron whose flowers have no trace of magenta. It seldom grows more than eight feet high, and has dark green leaves, covered with rusty dots below. The flowers come in June, and are borne in great profusion, fairly smothering the plant in a rose-colored blanket. Incidentally it may be said that this Rhododendron was named by Mr. Rehder of the Arboretum staff. England is fighting now with the Rose as her national flower. France has her Fleur-de-lis; but the United States has officially no THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 45 national flower. If such a flower should be chosen, probably the Mountain Laurel would be the most conspicuous candidate for the honor. The Mountain Laurel is not found in any other land, but it is very widespread in America. There is a big collection in the Arboretum, near the South Street entrance, at the base of Hemlock Hill. The flowering of the Laurels is the last of the great Arboretum flower shows of the year, and none of those which precede it are more beautiful, for the Mountain Laurel, or the Calico Bush as it is often called, is in the judgment of many flower- lovers the most beautiful of all North American shrubs or small trees. This great Laurel show in the Arnold Arboretum did not happen all at once. Jackson Dawson, the wonderful gardener who helped during all his life to make the world more beautiful, selected many of these Laurel plants in the mountains of Connecticut, Massachu- setts, and New York. Not far from the Rhododendrons and Laurels is a collection of Yews, which excite much attention. The Japanese Yew, Ta.rus cuspidata, is considered by Professor Sargent to be the most gener- ally valuable plant which the northern L nited States has obtained from Japan. Its native home is in the forest of northern Japan, where it becomes a tree forty or fifty feet high. It has not grown as tall as in its native country, but is perfectly hardy, and never suffers in the coldest winter. It is an excellent hedge plant, too, and can be used advantageously in the decoration of formal gardens. Another very interesting Japanese tree is Acanthopanax ricini- folium. As it grows at the side of a little pond not far from the Forest Hills Entrance, it makes an unusually attractive appearance. This tree belongs to the Aralia family, and the large, drooping leaves resemble in shape those of the Castor Oil Bean. The small, white flowers, which are produced in broad, flat clusters, do not appear until the middle of August, and are followed by small. black, shining fruit. People who want to cultivate a perfectly haidy tree, unlike any tree which is a native of North America or Europe, will find this Acanthopanai highly satisfactory. Among the (hvarfer Japanese plants the Junipers an ially interesting. They are to be found on the north side of Bussey Hill. The JuniperuB ehinerms, var. SargenHi, is the handsomest of the 46 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY dwarf Junipers which can be grown successfully in this climate. This shrub was named for Professor Sargent because he was the first man to collect it, finding the seeds in southern Hokkaido, in 1892. The plants raised from the seed which he brought home are probably the only ones in cultivation. It can be seen to advantage on the Hemlock Hill road, opposite the Laurels, where there are several large plants. Several other Junipers are to be found in the Arboretum collec- tion, and are of particular interest to landscape gardeners. Some of the more prostrate forms are highly valuable for covering banks and the margin of ponds. Juniperus horizontalis is an especially good garden plant, and Juniperus procumbens, a Japanese species, is being planted largely in California. It is perfectly hardy in the Arboretum, and may be grown as well here as in the west. Eucommia uhnoides is the so-called hardy Rubber-tree and one of the most interesting of Chinese plants. The leaves contain a small amount of rubber, as can be seen by pulling a leaf apart. It has no economic value but Eucommia is a good ornamental tree for the northern states on account of its thick, dark green, shining leaves and good habit. It is well established in the Arboretum where it has flowered. The plantation of young Cedars of Lebanon is the result of an experiment in naturalization undertaken by the Arboretum. The Cedar of Lebanon grows on the Lebanon Range in Syria, and also on the Anti-Taurus Mountains in Asia Minor, a more northern and much colder region. In its southern form it is not hardy in Massachusetts and an effort to secure a hardy race of this important and interesting tree led the Arboretum several years ago to have seeds gathered at the northern limits of its range in Asia Minor. Plants raised from these seeds have been growing in the Arboretum for fifteen years in exposed, windswept positions, and have not been injured by the exceptional cold of several winters. The seedlings of no other conifer raised in the Arboretum have grown so rapidly, the largest of these plants having attained the height of twenty-two feet in twelve years from the time the seed was planted. As had been said, the Arnold Arboretum is really a museum of trees, the greatest institution of the sort in the world. It is fitting, THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 47 therefore, that the native trees should have a very large representa- tion. They have been grouped for easy study, and can be found with but little difficulty. Among the handsomest are the Oaks, and they are particularly beautiful in the Arboretum, because allowed to grow in a natural way. The Red Oak rears its huge trunk from a bed of wild Asters, a natural forest floor in the Arbore- tum grounds. Among the most interesting of the deciduous trees are the Maples, a large collection of which may be found near the shrub garden. It includes both native and foreign species. The fastigiate Sugar Maple, Acer saccharum, var. columnar e, is of particular interest to landscape gardeners, as it can be used as a substitute for the more short lived Lombardy Poplar. It is quite as pyramidal in form, and handsomer in foliage, but of course does not grow nearly so rapidly. This column-like Maple was first discovered in a Newton cemetery, and whatever trees of the type exist at the present time have come from this parent. Many visitors to the Arboretum find the pinetum the most interesting feature of all. The pinetum is close to the Walter Street gate. Among the notable trees to be found there is the Carolina Hemlock, a native of the Blue Ridge, where it form- extensive forests on high mountain slopes. It is one of the most beautiful of the coniferous trees that are hardy and that can be successfully grown in the northern states. The Carolina Hemlock was first raised in the Arboretum more than thirty years ago. Judging from the behavior of the tree, it may be placed among the six most desirable conifers that can be planted in southern New England, the others being the White Pine, the Red Pine, the North- ern Hemlock, the White Fir of Colorado, and the Japanese .1 brackyphyUa, The last named fir, which is also called Abie* homolepis, i- <>ne of the handsomest and most satisfactory of all the conifers which Japan has sent to this country. It has dark green leaves, which an" silvery-white on the lower surface, and it- cones are rather unusual in color, being a violet purple. There is a tree in the Hnnnewell pinetum fifty-five feet high, with branches which sweep tie/ ground, and illustrate the beauty of the mature specimen. The Arbore- tum trees an- smaller, but already are producing their handsome eon. 48 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY Many coniferous trees have produced abnormal forms, that is, individuals with abnormally erect or pendent branches, or with short branches which grow so slowly that they form little round- topped bushes often not more than two feet high. All such plants are interesting, some of them are beautiful. They have always been favorites with nurserymen, and an unusually large collection is cultivated in the Arboretum. A form of the White Pine, with erect growing branches is called Pinus strobus fastigiaia. The tree from which the plants in the Arboretum were propagated was found in the woods of Massachusetts many years ago by Jackson Dawson. This pine is considered the handsomest of the conifers with erect-growing branches which can be grown in the northern states. In the Arboretum are weeping forms of the common Red Cedar, Juniperus virginiana, with pendulous branches. Of the numerous seedling forms of the Red Cedar this is one of the most distinct. It is also one of the handsomest of the hardy conifers with pendu- lous branches. The so-called Weeping Hemlock, Tsuga canadensis pendula, is often called the Sargent Hemlock in honor of the late Henry Winthrop Sargent of Fishkill Landing (now Beacon) New York, who in his time had one of the largest collections of conifers in America. The beauty of the Arboretum does not pass with the passing of Summer. On the contrary, the Fall display of fruits, berries, and brilliant foliage is almost as fine as that made by the flowers in the Spring. Evonymus Bungeanus is a native of northern China, and is a small tree with slightly pendulous branches. When Fall comes, its narrow leaves turn a clear bright yellow. The greatest beauty of this plant, though, lies in its fruit, which is pink and very abun- dant. The fruit is held for several weeks after the leaves fall, and makes a glorious display along the Meadow Road, worth twenty minutes of any man's time to visit. Nowhere else in all the world can so many different plants with brilliant Autumn foliage and handsome Fall fruits be found in one collection. Likewise there is no other garden in all the world where these plants can be so easily and conveniently studied. Every garden maker by rights should plant with the idea of keeping his garden gay with color practically the year round. As THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM 49 Bacon puts it: "I do hold it in the Royall Ordering of Gardens that there ought to be gardens for all the months of the year; in which severally things of beauty may be there in season." One of the good plants to use is Ligustrum vulgarc foliosum. This is a form of the common European Privet, but differs from it in having narrow leaves and larger fruit. It holds its leaves without a change of color until the beginning of Winter, which makes it a good sub- ject for garden decoration. Its black berries are borne in great profusion and in large clusters which add to its ornamental value. Even though the leaves may fall and the berries be eaten by the birds, it is still possible to have plenty of color in the garden by planting shrubs which possess red and yellow stems, particularis- tic Dogwoods of different kinds. In a corner of the Meadow Road in the Arboretum a handsome collection of American Cornels may be found. Here we see Cornus stolonifcra with red stems, and its variety flaviramca with yellows terns. These plants, with Kcrria japonica to provide rich green stems, are splendid for any garden. Even when the ground is blanketed with snow there is much of interest and beauty within the Arboretum gates. It is then that the Conifers, always delightful, show up to the best advantage. Scores of trees and shrubs carry their gaily colored fruit well into Winter. Some of the Hawthorns, of which there are several groups, keep their berries until Spring, and so do the Barberries. As a matter of fact it has been found from actual observation in the Arboretum that it is possible in this climate to have flowers every month in the year except possibly December. The foreign Witch Hazels begin to flower in late Winter, and last through until March, when some of the Willows burst into bloom. Perhaps all this will give you at least a meager conception of the great work which the Arboretum is doing, the great task to which it lias set its hand, and what it offers to the public as well as to specialists and nurserymen. The Arnold Arboretum is a great living museum of trees and shrubs. It is more than that. It is a wonderful example of land- scape gardening, one of the best in the world, [ts influence upon American horticulture is incalculable, and this influence must necessarily go on growing, as long, may we hope, as the Arboretum lasts, that is to say, for a thousand years and then another thousand years, and so on forever. NEW HORTICULTURAL CROPS FOR OUR SCANT FOOD SUPPLY. 1 By Prof. U. P. Hedrick, Geneva, N. Y. Delivered before the Society, February 2, 1918. Economists prophesy a deficiency in the world's food supply. The cost of living everywhere portends accuracy in their divinations The fast and furious struggle between nations and individuals for land upon which to grow food augurs lean years to come. Census enumerations of population presage sooner or later a dearth of ammunition among the multiplying peoples of the earth to carry on the battle of life. Of all this you need to be reminded rather than informed. So many men have stated and attempted to solve the problem of the future food supply that it would seem that the subject has been wholly talked out from the facts at hand. Indeed, there has been so much said and written about hard times at hand and famine ahead that I doubt if you are pleased to have your premonitions reawakened by further forebodings. Agricultural economists discuss three rather general means of securing'a food supply for those who live later when the earth teems with human beings. These are: conservation of resources; greater acreages under cultivation; and increased yields from improved plants and through better tillage. It is difficult to anticipate the problems that will confront US when people swarm on the land, M now in India or China, but 1 venture the prediction that it' in that day " the evil arrows of famine" are sent upon us, a fourth means of supplying food will l>e found quite as important as the three named. We shall find, long before famine overtakes us, that the natural 1 This eddreei wns originally ■ pri'sid.-ntial tddreai bofow iii>- Society for Hort i c ultura l Si I'M. ■• ami was printed in Um report <>f tin- S.>< i.-l > fur 1913. I' was Rivon lwf,, r .< the »«r and its reviebx ami repetition MMUM to the writer i < i ^i i t i»-« I I'v the worloVirldta ■hortage of food brought alxnit by tlio war. 51 52 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY capacity of soils and climates to produce a diversity of crops is one of the greatest resources for an increased food supply. As yet, multiplicity of crops as a means of augmenting the supply of food has received little attention and I want to bring you to a better realization of its possibilities in the half hour at my disposal, attempting to show, in particular, how greatly the necessities and luxuries of life can be increased by the domestication of wild escu- lents; by better distribution of little-known food plants; and by the amelioration of crops we now grow through breeding them with wild or little-known relatives. Few, even among those who have given special attention to agricultural crops, have a proper conception of the number that might be grown. De Candolle, one of the few men of science who have made a systematic study of domesticated plants, and whose *' Origin of Cultivated Plants" has long been sanctioned by science as authoritative, is much to blame for the current misconception as to the number of plants under cultivation. By conveying the idea that his book covers the whole field, De Candolle prepared the ground for a fine crop of misunderstandings. Humboldt stated in 1807 that, " The origin, the first home of the plants most useful to man, and which have accompanied him from the remotest epochs, is a secret as impenetrable as the dwelling of all our domesti- cated animals/ ' De Candolle set out to disprove Humboldt. He assorted culti- vated plants in 247 species and ascertained very accurately the histories of 244 out of the total number. De Candolle's thorough- ness, patience, judgment, affluence of knowledge, clear logic and felicity of expression, make his book so trustworthy and valuable in most particulars, that we have accepted it as the final word in all particulars, overlooking his faulty enumeration and forgetting that most of his material was gathered more than a half century ago. My first task is to establish the fact that the number of plants now cultivated for food the world over is not appreciated in either science or practice. Neither are botanists nor agriculturists seemingly well aware of the number of edible plants now domes- ticated which are in times of stress used in various parts of the world for food, many of which can well be grown for food. Your attention must be called to the number of these. NEW HORTICULTURAL CROPS FOR FOOD SUPPLY 53 Inspiration for this discussion of the undeveloped food resources of the plant-kingdom came to the speaker from the use of notes left at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station by the first director of the station, the late Dr. E. Lewis Sturtevant, during his active life a member of this Society, who gave much time to the study of economic botany. His pen contributions on cultivated plants in agricultural and botanical magazines cover thirty years and number many titles. In addition, the unpublished material just mentioned, under the heading "Edible Plants of the World" takes up over 1,600 typewritten pages. During his life, Dr. Sturtevant was in the full tide of American science, but I am sure could he have lived to publish the great treatise which he had planned on edible plants, and upon which he worked for twenty years, we should give him much higher rank with giants of science, and that his book would now be the magnum opus of economic botany. De Candolle, as we have seen, includes but 247 cultivated species in his work. This is approximately the number generally thought to minister to the alimentary wants of man. Sturtevant, in his notes on edible plants, enumerates 1,113 domesticated species now cultivated, and a total of 4,447 species, some part or parts of which are edible. Following De Candolle, Sturtevant made use of botany, archeology, paleontology, history and philology in obtaining his data. He searched the literature of the world from the earliest records in Egyptian, Chinese and Phoenician until the time of his death to make a complete record of the edible plants of the world. Sturtevant's were the species, too, of a generation ago, many of which have since been divided twice, thrice, or oftener by later botanists. It is said that no food plant of established field culture has ever gone out of cultivation, an approximate truth, at least, from which we may presume that the number of cultivated plants is not smaller than the numbers given from our author's notes. In leaving this phase of my subject, I can not but say, despite the fulness of Sturtevant's notes, the feeling comes in reading them, as it does in reading De Candolle, Darwin or whoever has written on the domestication of plants, that what has so far been found out is so little in comparison to what we ought to know regarding the modification of cultivated plants by man, that our present knowl- edge but makes more apparent the dire poverty of our information. 54 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY Passing now to a more direct discussion of the subject in hand, I have to say that I have chosen to discuss three general means of developing the latent possibilities in the plant-kingdom for agri- culture. It may help to hold your attention if I discuss these in order of their importance — the most important last. They are: First, the domestication of the native plants of any region. Second, better distribution of plants now cultivated. Third, the utilization of hybridization to bring into being new types of plants better suited to cultivation and to the uses of man. In the matter of domesticating plants let us glance hastily at what has and what can be done in our own country. In De Candolle's treatise we make but a poor showing, indeed. Out of his 247 cultivated species but 45 are accredited to the New "World, and but three of these — the pumpkin, Jerusalem artichoke and persimmon — come from North America. To these three, Sturte- vant adds about thirty. The poor showing made by our continent in furnishing food plants, it must be made plain, is not due to origi- nal inferiority. The number would be vastly greater, as Asa Gray long ago pointed out, had civilization begun in this rather than in the Old World. It is probable, indeed, that the numbers would be approximately equal if civilization had begun as early in the Western as in the Eastern Hemisphere. What are some of these plants that Gray and other botanists have so often told us might have been and may yet profitably be domesticated? The list is far too long to catalogue, but you will permit me time for a few examples, choosing those that are still worth domesticating for some special purpose or environment. Fruits give us most examples. Wild fruits abound in North America. The continent is a natural orchard. More than 200 species of tree, bush, vine and small fruits were commonly used by the aborigines for food, not counting nuts, those occasionally used, and numerous rarities. In its plums, grapes, raspberries, blackberries, dewberries, cran- berries and gooseberries North America has already given the world a great variety of new fruits. There are now under cultiva- tion 11 American species of plums, of which there are 433 pure- bred and 155 hybrid varieties; 15 species of American grapes with 404 pure and 790 hybrid varieties; 4 species of raspberries with 280 NEW HORTICULTURAL CROPS FOR FOOD SUPPLY 00 varieties; 6 species of blackberries with 86 varieties; 5 species of dewberries with 23 varieties; 2 species of cranberries with 60 varieties and 2 gooseberries with 35 varieties. Here are 45 species of American fruits with 2,226 varieties, domesticated within ap- proximately a half century. De Candolle named none of them. The final note of exultation at this really magnificent achievement of American horticulture would typically be uttered in a boast as to the number of millions of dollars these fruits bring fruit- growers each year, but science is not sordid and has not made the calculation. What more can be done? The possibilities of the fruits named have by no means been exhausted. The fruit of the wild plum, Prunus maritima, an inhabitant of sea-beaches and dunes from Maine to the Carolinas, is a common article of trade in the region in which it grows, but notwithstanding the fact that it readily breaks into innumerable forms and is a most promising subject under hybridization, practically nothing has yet been done toward domesticating it. Few plants grow under such varied conditions as our wild grapes. Not all have been brought under subjugation, though nearly all have horticultural possibilities. It is certain that some grape can be grown in every agricultural region of the United States. The blueberry and huckleberry, finest of fruits, and now the most valuable American wild fruits, the crops bringing several millions of dollars annually, are not yet domesticated. Coville has demonstrated that the blueberry can be cultivated- Some time we should have numerous varieties of the several blueberries and huckleberries to enrich pine plains, mountain tracts, swamps and waste lands that otherwise are all but wort hi' A >core or more native species of gooseberries and currants can be domesticated and should some time extend the culture of tl fruits from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Circle. There are many forms of juneberries widely distributed in the United - and Canada, from whieh several varieties are now cultivated. The elderberry is represented by a dozen or more cultivated varieties, one of whieh, brought to my attention the past BCaSQQ, produced a half hundred enormous clusters, a single cluster being made up of 2,208 berries, each a third of an inch in diameter. These are but a few of the fruits — others whieh can Only be 56 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY named are: the anonas and their kin from Florida; the native crabapples and thorn-apples; the wine-berry, the buffalo-berry and several wild cherries; the cloud-berry prized in Labrador; the crow-berry of cold and Arctic America; the high-bush cran- berry; native mulberries; opuntias and other cacti for the deserts; the paw-paw, the persimmon, and the well-known and much-used salal and salmon berries of the west and north. The pecan, the chestnut and the hickory-nut are the only native nuts domesticated, but some time forest and waste places can be planted not only to the nuts named, but to improved varieties of acorns, beechnuts, butternuts, filberts, hazels, chinquapins and nutpines, to utilize waste lands, to diversify diet and to furnish articles of food that can be shipped long distances and be kept from year to year. The fad of today which substitutes nuts for meat may become a necessity tomorrow. Meanwhile it is interest- ing to note that the pecan has become within a few decades so important a crop that optimistic growers predict in another half century that pecan groves will be second only to the cottonfields in the south. A bulletin from the United States Department of Agriculture describes 67 varieties, of which more than a million and a half trees have been planted. It is doubtful whether we are to change general agriculture much by the domestication at this late date of new native grains, though many may well be introduced from other regions and wonderful improvement through plant-breeding is, as all know, now taking place. Raw material exists in America for domestication, but it is not probable that we shall ever use it extensively. There are, however, a number of native vegetables worth cul- tivating. The native beans and teparies in the semi-arid and sub- tropical southwest to which Freeman, of the Arizona station, has called attention, grown perhaps for thousands of years by the aborigines, seem likely to prove timely crops for the dry-farmers of the southwest. Professor Freeman has isolated 70 distinct types of these beans and teparies, suggesting that many horti- cultural sorts may be developed from his foundation stock. The ground-nut, Apios tuberosa, furnished food for the French at Port Royal in 1613 and the Pilgrims at Plymouth in 1620, and as a crop for forests might again be used. There are a score or more species NEW HORTICULTURAL CROPS FOR FOOD SUPPLY 57 of Physalis, or ground cherries, native to North America, several of which are promising vegetables and have been more or less used by pioneers. Solanwn nigrum, the nightshade, a cosmopolite of America and Europe, recently much advertised under several misleading names, and its congener, Solatium triflorum, both really wild tomatoes, are worthy of cultivation and in fact are readily yielding to improvement. Amaranthus retroflexus, one of the common pigweeds of gardens, according to Watson, is cultivated for its seeds by the Arizona Indians. In China and Japan the corms or tubers of a species of Sagittaria are commonly sold for food. There are several American species, one of which at least was used wherever found by the Indians, and under the name arrowhead, swan potato and swamp potato has given welcome sustenance to pioneers. Our native lotus, a species of Nelumbo, was much prized by the aborigines, seeds, roots and stalks being eaten. Sagittaria and Nelumbo furnish starting points for valuable food plants for countless numbers of acres of water-covered marshes when the need to utilize these now waste places becomes pressing. The temptation is strong to continue this discussion of the domestication of native plants, but time demands that I pa>- to B consideration of the second potential of an increased diet, that of better distribution of the world's food-producing plants. Beginning with the discovery of the New World, botanical and agricultural explorations have been carried on with zeal, and food plants have been interchanged freely between newly discovered lands and older civilizations. Yet in these centuries the food-plant floras of races have been changed but little. Quite too often a crop is found to be the monopoly of a race or nation irrespective of soil and climate, factors which ought to import a cultivated Mora. It would seem that agriculturists would quickly adopt food plants grown elsewhere of which the advantage is evident, and be thereby diverted from the cultivation of poorer crops in their own country. Yet the introduction of foreign plants is usually arrested, if not actually opposed by the timidity of agriculture, and it has been most difficult to introduce new crops into old regions. Thlfl con- vation on the part of those wli<> grow the food plants of the coun- try is due to a universal dislike in the animal kingdom, most strongly developed in the human family, to eating unfamiliar food- " v MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY But travel is making all people less and less fastidious as to foods, as the numerous new foreign dishes in daily use in our own homes give evidence. Only savages and those who must struggle for sufficient food to sustain life line on one or a few foods. Let us hastily run over a few foreign plants that may well receive more attention in America, naming fruits first as of most interest to this audience. Japanese pliuns and persimmons came to America in the medieval days of horticultural progress, and interest in them seems to have ceased. We need new importations of the many types not yet in the country. The fig is an ancient immi- grant, but many desirable relatives were left behind. Date cul- ture is now a most promising infant industry in the southwest. The Chinese jujube promises to be one of the most valuable of the many plants recently introduced into this country. The jujube is a hardy tree which has been cultivated in China for more than 4,000 years, being one of the five principal fruits of the new republic. There are hundreds of varieties differing in flavor and sizes, some growing less than an inch in length and others equaling the size of a hen's egg. One variety is seedless. Some kinds are eaten fresh, some are stewed. Among the newest of the new on probation, but all clamoring for recognition, are the avocada from tropical America; the feijoa from Brazil; a dozen or more annonaceous fruits from the tropics, of which the cherimoya seems now to be most prominent ; an edible Osage orange from Central China; the roselle. an annual from the Old World tropics, valuable for its fruit, stalks and seed. Several species of Berberis supply a refreshing fruit in northern Asia and might add variety to the rather spare fruit diet of the colder parts of this continent. Beside these are innumerable new citrus fruits, the number of species and varieties of which seem to be legion — the speaker is neither able to enumerate them not to tell where they begin or where they leave off. Swingle's splendid work with this genus is one of the most notable contributions to horticulture in recent years. The mango has long been grown in Florida, but interest in mangos has recently been renewed through the introduction of choice Indian varieties. Poponoe describes 312 varieties of mangos grown in various parts of the world, of which as yet I judge there NEW HORTICULTURAL CROPS FOR FOOD SUPPLY 59 are but few in America, though they are not difficult to grow in Florida, California or in our insular possessions. A quotation from Fairchild suggests the possible future of the mango in America. He says: " The mango is one of the really great fruits of the world .... There are probably more varieties of mangos than there are of peaches. I have heard of one collection of five hundred different sorts in India. There are exquisitely flavored varieties no larger than a plum, and there are delicious sorts, the fruits of which are six pounds in weight. These fine varieties, practically as free from fiber as a freestone peach, can be eaten with a spoon as easily as a canteloupe. Trainloads of these are shipped from the mango- growing centers of India and distributed in the densely peopled cities of that great semi-tropical empire." No one can read Bayard Taylor's fervent praise of the durian and the mangosteen and not desire to grow these fruits in America. He says of the durian: — "Of all fruits, at first the most intoler- able; but said, by those who have smothered their prejudices, to be of all fruits, at last, the most indispensable. When it is brought to you at first, you clamor till it is removed; if there are durians in the next room to you, you can not sleep. Chloride of lime and disinfectants seem to be its necessary remedy. To eat it seems to be a sacrifice of self-respect; but, endure it for a while, with closed nostrils, taste it once or twice, and you will cry for durians thence- forth, even — I blush to write it — even before the gloriou> mangosteen." Listen to his laudation of the "glorious mangosteen." "Beautiful to sight, smell and taste, it hangs among it- glossj leaves the prince of fruits. Cut through the shaded green and purple of the rind, and lift the upper half as if it were the cover of a dish, and the pulp of half-transparent, creamy whiteness stands in segments like an orange, but rimmed with darkest crimson where the rind was cut. It looks too beautiful to cat ; but how the ran st essence of the tropics seems to dwell in it as it melts to your delightful taste." One need not titillate the palate to enjoy >nch fruit, (an they be so delectable? Surely we can find a place for them somewhere in America. 60 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY Let us turn to a few examples of promising vegetable and farm crops of foreign countries not yet cultivated in the United States. Only those which give most emphasis to the present paper can be mentioned. All know that rice furnishes the chief food of China, but few are aware that sorghum is as important a crop in Asia as rice and that it is the chief food of a large part of Africa. In China not only are the stalks of sorghum used, but bread is made from the seeds. In parts of India, sorghum is the staff of life. The Zulu Kaffirs five on the stalks, which are chewed and sucked, and Livingstone the people grow fat thereon." The several species of yams constitute one of the cheapest and most widely distributed food plants in the world, yet the yam is little grown in America. Several genera of Aroideae, as Caladium, Alocasia, Colocagia, and Arum, each with innumerable varieties, furnish taro, arrowroot, ape and other more or less familiar food to the South Sea islanders. In a bulletin from the L'nited States Department of Agriculture, under the title. "Promising Root Crops for the South," these Aroids, called under their native names of yautias, taros. and dasheens are recommended as most valuable wet-land root crops for the South Atlantic and Gulf States. Of the place of the cocoanut in the world's economy I need not speak. Varieties of Maranta were grown in Mississippi and Georgia in 1549, but disappeared. From one of the several species of this genus comes the arrowroot of commerce. Arrowroot is a favorite food of the Fijis and their neighbors, as well as of the inhabitants of Cape Colony, Xatal, and Queensland. May not arrowroot some time be produced profitably in America": The banana has been on our tables less than a generation, yet it is now one of the commonest foods. There are several species and many varieties yet to be introduced into the tropics of America. The leaves and buds of several agaves furnish an abundant and a very palatable food to our southern neighbors. From plants of the large genus Manihot of equatorial regions, tapioca is made under conditions which could be greatly improved. As cassava, one of these manihots is already important in the L'nited States and may some time compete with corn and wheat in the food supply of the country. To quench the thirst of the teeming millions in time to come NEW HORTICULTURAL CROPS FOR FOOD SUPPLY Gl there may be a multiplicity of beverages as well as of foods to mitigate hunger. In Arabia several millions of people drink khat, while in southern South America as many more millions allay their thirst with mate. Mate, according to Fairchild, can be produced at but a fraction of the cost of tea and supplies the same alkaloid in a more easily soluble form. Both contain thein, the active principle in "the cups that cheer but not inebriate." Sturtevant names twelve plants the leaves of which are used in different parts of the world to adulterate or in place of tea. We have but just acquired the use of cocoa and chocolate from the natives of our American tropics and of cocacola from the negroes of Africa, and it is not unlikely that we shall find other similar stimulants. For drinkers of more ardent beverages, if King Alcohol continues to reign, there is an abundance, the diversity and cheapness of which probably will ever as now be regulated by taste and taxes. Time prevents my naming other valuable foreign plants that deserve to be tried in our agriculture. It is fortunate for American farming that men from the United States Department of Agricul- ture are now searching everywhere for new material. Saul went in search of asses and came back with a crown. So these men sent to foreign countries for material, possibly commonplace enough, are bringing back treasures the value of which in many cases will be incalculable. Introduction of seeds and plants for the nation is work to which the institutions represented here should lend aid in every way possible. The last of the three means of developing plants for food, and as I believe the most important, is by using either foreign species or wild native species to hybridize with established crop-plants. # It needs but a brief statement of what has been accomplished in increasing hardiness, productiveness, disease resistance, adapta- bility to soil, and other essentials of standard crop-plants, to show that through hybridisation of related species we have probably the best means of augmenting our diet. Let us glance at a few- recent accomplishments of hybridization, noting chiefly results with horticultural plants. Downing in L872 described 286 varieties of 1 speciei of plum-. In the 40 years that have elapsed the number has increased to 1,037 varieties representing 16 Bpeciea Now- the significant thing 62 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY is that whereas Downing' s plums were pure-bred species, 155 of the present cultivated plum flora are hybrids between species. Downing could recommend plums for only a few favored regions. Some kind of plum can be grown now in every agricultural region in North America. Even more remarkable is the part hybrids have played in the evolution of American grapes. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the grape could not be called a cultivated crop on this continent. Now there are 16 species and 1,194 varieties, the most significant fact being that 790 or three-fourths of the total number are hybrids. The grape through hybridization has become one of the commonest cultivated plants. The genus ltubus promises to attract and distract horticulturists next. As nearly as I can make out there are about 60 species of Rubus in North America. In the two completed parts of Focke's " Species Ruborum," 273 species are described. Raspberries, blackberries, dewberries and their like hybridize freely and we already have in the loganberry, the purple-cane raspberry, the wineberry and in the blackberry-dewberry crosses valuable fruits. If any consider- able number of Focke's several hundred species can be similarly mixed and amalgamated, the genus Rubus will be one of the most valuable groups of fruits. The speaker a few years ago made a study of cultivated cherries. When the work began a few years ago about a score of species were in sight. Koehne, a recent botanical monographer of the sub- genus Cerasus, to which our edible cherries belong, describes 119 species, many of them but recently collected by Wilson in Asia. There are enough hybrids between species to indicate that culti- vated cherries will some time be diversified as plums and with quite as much advantage to the fruit. Webber's and Swingle's work in breeding hardy citrus fruits; blight-resisting pears as a result of crossing Pyrus communis and Pyrus sinensis; Burbank's spectacular hybrid creations; the diversity of types of tomatoes, potatoes, egg-plant, peppers, beans, cucurbits and other vegetables, not to mention roses, chrysanthe- mums, orchids and innumerable flowers, suggest the possibilities of hybridization. We have not done what lies within our reach in crossing cereals — corn, wheat, oats, rye, buckwheat, the last especially, remain yet to be touched by the magic wand of hybridi- NEW HORTICULTURAL CROPS FOR FOOD SUPPLY 63 zation. Hybrid walnuts, chestnuts, hickories, and oaks, promise a wonderful improvement in nuts. Truth is we do not know how much nor what material we have to work with in many of the groups of plants I have named, lending color to the saying that the plants with which man has most to do and which render him greatest service are those which botanists know least. This brings me to the last division of my subject. Nothing is more certain than that we are at the beginning of a most fertile period in the introduction of new and the improvement of old food-plants. Yet agricultural institutions are most illy prepared to take part in the movement. " Art is long and time is fleeting," can be said of no human effort more truly than of the improvement of plants, and haste should be made for better prepara- tion. Looking over the material that is usable in agricultural institutions, it seems that we are sadly lacking in the wherewithal upon which to begin. It is indispensable for effective work that we have an abundance of material and that we know well the plants with which we are to work. How may the material be had? We are fortunate in the United States in having the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction of the United States Department of Agriculture for the importa- tion of foreign plants. This office has effective machinery for the work. It maintains agricultural explorers in foreign countries. It is in direct contact with the agricultural institutions of other countries as well as with plant-collectors, explorers, consuls, officers of other countries, and missionaries. Through tli agents it can reach the uttermost parts of the world. Morevoer, it has trained men to identify, to inventory, to propagate and to distribute foreign plants. This office can better meet quarantine regulations than can private experimenters or state institutions. All interested in foreign plants ought to work in cooperation with the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction of the Depart- ment of Agriculture. To be used advantageously material must be near at hand. This means that there must be botanic gardens. There should be in every distinct agricultural region of the country | garden \vli< may be found the food plants of the world suitable for the region. It is Strange that in the lavish expenditure of state and federal 64 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY rooney in the agricultural institutions of the land, that so little has been done to establish and maintain comprehensive plantations of economic plants. Now that the amelioration of plants is a part of the work of agricultural colleges and stations it would seem that the establishment of such gardens is imperative. True, there are botanic gardens, but the museum idea is dominant in most of them — they contain the curiosities of the vegetable kingdom, or they show the ornamental and beautiful, or they are used for purposes of instruction. We need agricultural gardens in which agricultural plants are dominant rather than recessive. There is another difficulty quite as detrimental to progress as inability to obtain material. It is the lack of trustworthy informa- tion in regard to economic plants. Quite as necessary as agricul- tural gardens is an agricultural botany. In this botany must be set forth, besides descriptions of species, the habitat, the migrations, the geographical relations to other plants, the changes that have occurred, how the plant is affected by man-given environment, and all similar data. Physiological facts regarding germination, leafing, flowering and fruiting must be given. The production of such a book is a consummation devoutly to be wished. Lastly, material and books do not create. The man has not been lost sight of, but I should have to set forth his temper and training too hurriedly even if I could properly conceive them. But from the beginning to the end of this new shaping of food crops, the individual man trained for the work will be dominant. The work to be done, however, is so vast that we can not make an appreciable showing unless the task be divided among a great number of workers. Those who will do most are such as can con- centrate on particular problems the sifted experience and knowl- edge of the world. Many may sow, but only the strong can garner. In conclusion, I must end as I began by calling attention to the great probability of a near-at-hand deficiency of food. I must again urge the importance of making use of every means of increas- ing the supply. I have tried to call attention to the desirability of growing a greater number of food-plants as one of the means. Not to attempt to develop and utilize to its highest efficiency the vast wealth of material in the plant-kingdom for the world's food is im- providence and is a reckless ignoring of splendid opportunities to in- crease the number of food-crops and thereby the world's food supply. THE PEONY. By Bertrand H. Farr, Wyomissing, Pa. Delivered before the Society, with stereopticon illustrations, February 16, 1918. I remember the first Peony I ever saw. It was the first year when father took us west, and I was six years old. It grew in my aunt's garden. It wasn't a real Peony, it was just a "Piney,' - one of those old-fashioned red ones that grew in all old ladies' gardens, but I thought it was very beautiful. I told her if she would give me a bloom, I would drive her cow home from the pasture that night. The arrangement was mutually satisfactory, and after further negotiations she agreed that if I would drive the cow home for one week, she would give me a "Piney toe," and so I came into possession of my first Peony. More than 25 years elapsed before I ow r ned another Peony, but when in 1897 I came to Wyomissing, where I could have a real garden, one of the first things I determined was to have a complete collection of Peonies, "a white one, a red one and a pink one." Then I discovered that Ellwanger & Barry had a great collection as many as twenty kinds. After I had gotten these, one of Lo- rn oine's catalogues fell into my hands and, after some hesitation over the extravagance, I made the plunge. I sent to him my first foreign order in 1901. Only then did I realize 1 what was before me, but it was too late. The Peony bug had gotten me, as it has gotten many others, and will get you too if it once u r cts fairly hold of you. Orders from Dessert and others soon followed. Then from Kerway in England. There must have been a sort of Peony epidemic prevalent at that time, for 1 learned afterwards that a number of those who today arc well known in the IVony world, were similarly affected at about the same time in th< manner, the two Petersons, Shaylor, McKiss ek, Ward, John Good, Betcher and others. In the Thur- 65 66 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY low ranks, where it had partly subsided (Mr. Thurlow having recently sold his collection), there was a fresh outbreak of the craze. I was not then in touch with these people, but I had heard of a Peony Society. I came home, packed my grip and started to Boston to see the Peony Show, and learn something about Peonies. Ever since then Boston has seemed to me the "Hub" in Peony matters, as it used to be for me in things musical, for here in this hall I got my first real inspiration. I stopped off at Cottage Gardens to see Mr. Ward, President of the Peonv Societv. He was busy collecting flowers for the show, noting new things coming into bloom for the first time, identifying things untrue, etc., and trying his best to be polite to me, all at once. In the light of later experience, I can appreciate his position, but neither he nor I sus- pected then that I was to be his successor. I have brought with me a photograph of that Peony Show in 1906, that I took myself. Over on one table is a display of Hollis' new seedlings. Several of them, Paradise, Goliath, Bunker Hill, and 'Welcome Guest received certificates of merit. He also showed a fine lot of Japanese types, then little thought of, but since these have become very popular. Among these especially were Glory, Bobby Bee, and Attraction. Mr. Shaylor carried off the honors, as he has done so many times since, with his splendid collection. Mr. McKissock was there with his fine collection of novelties from France. Of course the Thurlows were represented there, and in the center of the room stood a massive great vase of Richardson's Rubra Superba, which carried off the first prize. Here I first met the Rev. C. S. Harrison, "Evangelist of the Peony," for he, more than anyone else has preached the gospel of the Peony throughout the great northwest. Here I met our Mr. Fewkes, whom all of us of the Peony Society have come to hold in such sincere regard. I visited T. C. Thurlow, the first of the great Peony enthusiasts in Xew England, at his delightful and hospitable home. I visited James McKissock, and his beautiful collection at West Newton. Up at "Wellesley Hills I found Mr. Shaylor among his Peonies. In one corner, carefully screened under a tent from the hot sun, we came to the climax of our visit, when he said to us, "There, gentlemen, is the celebrated Lady Alexandra Duff." He was doomed to disappointment, for it turned out at the show to be THE PEONY 67 identical with Grandiflora Nivea Plena. Others had had similar disappointments, for Lady Duff turned out to be first James Kelway, then Mrs. Gwyn Lewis, and a host of other things, even to Festiva Maxima, till Mr. Shaylor in disgust, pronounced the Lady a myth, using a famous quotation, "There ain't no such thing." Mr. Kelway finally got so stirred up over the storm of criticism from his angry patrons in this country, that some years later he sent to several of us what he declared was a really truly Lady Duff, ac- companied by photographs from his own garden, showing the original plant in flower. I met many others there, whom for lack of time I cannot mention, but I formed friendships with them that have endured to this day. Some of them have passed away, but the greatest thing I learned was that Peony people as a class are mighty fine people. They are true blue. For they grow Peonies, not as a commercial proposition, but because they really love the flower, and find in it a fascination that cannot be resisted. The Peony is a true aristocrat of the hardy garden. I do not apply this as a mere phrase, for it is true in every sense, both as to its lineage and its associations. In China it is said that the Tree Peony has been their chief pride and glory for nearly 1500 years, a theme for their poets and painters, and prized by their emperors for the beauty and fragrance of its flowers; and for more than a thousand years a record of the characters, qualities, and parentage of the new varieties raised from seed has been kept. In their gardens the Tree Peony is known as the " King of Flowers," and the herbaceous Peony as the "King's Ministers." It is descended from Paeonia albiflora, a native of Siberia. Knowing this, I can well understand why it thrives so luxuriantly in the rich alluvial soil of our western states, and why it is the flower for the great Northwest, enduring, as it does, the most intense cold without injury. This Asiatic Peony must not be confused with the old- fashioned, early flowering red Peony of our grandmothers' gardens, which belongs to an entirely distinct species, officinalis, a native of Europe, the early history of which is intricately woven with a haze of superstition, allegory, and myth. Its magical charm- wore supposed to ward off witchcraft, and the name Peony is derived from a Dr. Peon, who used its r medicine. The modern Chinensis Peony lias only been known in Europe a 68 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY little more than half a century. It was under the care of M. Jacques, gardener to King Louis Philippe, that one of the first collections was formed, and some of the first of the fine varieties of today originated. M. Jacques' collection was inherited by his nephew, M. Victor Verdier, who raised a number of fine seedlings. The collection of the Comte de Cussy, an amateur collector, was inherited by M. Calot, of Douai, who continued to raise seedlings till 1872, when his collection passed into the hands of M. Crousse, of Nancy, who made careful selections from the Calot seedlings and sent them out annually until 1879. From 1882 until 1899, Crousse sent out seedlings of his own raising. The Calot-Crousse varieties are noted for their uniform high quality, raising the standard of excellence to a height that has never been surpassed, unless it be by the splendid varieties introduced in recent years by that greatest of all the world's hybridizers, Victor Lemoine, whose establishment at Nancy is at Crousse's old place. All the Lemoine varieties are exquisitely beautiful, but most of them so rare, they are but little known outside of the larger collections. Another famous French collector of Peonies, contemporary with Calot and Crousse, was M. Mechin, also an enthusiastic amateur, whose grandson, M. A. Dessert, of Chenonceaux, succeeds him, and is considered today the greatest living authority on Peonies. Among his most recent introductions may be found some of the most beautiful additions to the many fine varieties for which we are indebted to the French specialists. Recently a number of fine new varieties, which are yet but little known in this country, have been originated in France by Riviere, Paillet, Brochet and others. To these must be added the beautiful varieties raised by James Kelway, of England, who began his work on the Peony in 1864, and twenty years later catalogued forty-one new varieties of his own raising. Among those who have been most prominent in the introductions of new Peonies in America which equal those of the finest French introductions, was John Richardson, of Dorchester, Massachusetts. Robert T. Jackson in his paper published in the Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society for 1904, "John Richardson, His House and Garden" writes: "Mr. Richardson had a perfect passion for horticulture, and every plant in his garden that he loved THE PEONY 69 so well was a real personality to him. A walk with him about the garden meant a lingering at every step to consider the merits, the history, or some cultural point in regard to the plants that were as his children. When nearly ninety, he planted Peony seeds just the same as in his earlier years, and some of his posthumous seed- lings are among his best." His varieties are all of unusual merit. Milton Hill and Paul Fisher are among the best; Walter Faxon stands alone, unapproached by any other Peony in its color, the nearest true deep pink; while Rubra Superba, crimson, and Grandi- flora, soft shell-pink, still stand at the head, as the best and very latest of these colors to bloom. H. A. Terry, of Crescent, Iowa, early became interested in Peonies, and produced many varieties, the best probably being Grover Cleveland, Etta, Emma, Princess Ellen, Euphemia, and Stephanie. Writing in 1904 he says, "I am now in my eightieth year, and do not know how long I shall continue to grow Peonies, but I want to be surrounded by them as long as I live. They are like my children, very dear to me." It was in Boston, in 1906, that I first met Mr. Hollis and saw his beautiful blooms on exhibition. I thought them fine then, and in my garden since they have not disappointed me. He was a genial, kindly gentleman, with means and leisure to devote his time to his favorites. I visited him in 1910 when his Peonies were in bloom. Although stricken then with a fatal illness, unable to walk alone, he sat in the little summer-house overlooking his Peonies, happy in the sight of them, still able to talk with enthusiasm about his treasures and call them by name. Among his many fine ones are Paradise, Welcome Guest, Maude L. Richardson, Standard Bearer, George Washington, Bunker Hill, and Tragedie. Mention must also be made of his Japanese types, of which he raised a Dumber which are distinct and fine. Mrs. Sarah A. Pleas, now living in Whittier, California at the advanced age of over 83 years, is as actively interested in Peonies as when at her home in Spiceland, Indiana, she raised and intro- duced Opal, Elwood Pleas, and her now famous Jubilee, which carried off highest honors at the National Peony Show in Phila- delphia last year. A. M. Brand, of Faribault. Minnesota, for many yean has been giving his attention to the raising of seedling Peonies. His varieties are now attracting a great deal of attention : 70 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY his Martha Bullock, best known, was one of the prominent features in the show last year. Among his many new ones I would mention Marv Brand, Richard Carvel, and Francis Willard. E. J. Shavlor of Wellesley Hills, is devoting his later years to raising new varie- ties, and has already given us Georgiana Shaylor, Mary Woodbury Shavlor, Wilton Lockwood, and a number of others which have received certificates of merit at your shows here. We must not forget to mention Cherry Hill by Thurlow of West Newbury, and Karl Rosenfield, by Rosenfield of Omaha, Nebraska, as being two American varieties of exceptional merit. Some of you may re- member the splendid exhibit of some fifty new unnamed seedlings made here two years ago by Prof. A. P. Saunders of Clinton, New York. You will want to keep an eye on his work, for possibly one of these days the long sought yellow Peony may appear in his garden, for he is after it, apparently on the right track, and I shouldn't wonder if he succeeds. It will be seen, therefore, that nearly all of our modern Peonies are of comparatively recent introduction, and I am greatly im- pressed by the fact that practically all of the fine Peonies we have today have come to us through that remarkable group in France, Calot, Crousse, Lemoine, and Dessert, most of them having a family relationship, and the few enthusiasts in America, just mentioned, who have taken up the growing of Peonies because they found it intensely fascinating; for the Peony does not attract the commercial grower. In its propagation there is no easy, royal road to quick results. It takes from four to six years before blooms may be had from seed, and if, perchance, one seedling in a thousand has sufficient merit and distinction to justify its introduction as a new variety, it takes many more years to raise by the slow process of division, sufficient stock to be able to offer it to the trade. That is why the new varieties are so expensive; unlike a new Rose or Carnation, which in a few months can be increased to an unlimited supply through cuttings. It takes years to acquire a few plants from a Peonv, and even todav, some of the old varieties are still scarce. The professional grower cannot afford to wait so long for results. So most of the work with the Peony has been done by those whose love for the flowers themselves, and the fascination of watching THE PEONY 71 them grow, has been their chief incentive. Here is an example of your real Peony lover: Two or three years ago I visited your Mr. Fewkes whom all of us Peony people have come to regard in such high esteem. After we had enjoyed the Peonies in his garden we went inside, where in a vase he had three of the most wonderful blooms I have ever seen. They were Lemoine's La Lorraine and Dessert's Therese and Rosa Bonheur. As we stood admiring them he remarked, " Do you know? it almost seems to me as if it is worth a year of a man's lifetime, just to be permitted to look upon a thing so beautiful!" Truly the Peony is an aristocrat. Classification. The Chinensis Peony (albiflora), in its original or wild state, was a single white flower, and the various stages of its transition from its original single type to the perfect double flower, forms the basis of the classification by the American Peony Society of the modern Peony in its various forms as follows : — Single. Those with a single row of wide guard petals, and a center of yellow pollen-bearing stamens. Semi-double. Those with several rows of wide petals, and a center of stamens and partially transformed petaloids. Japanese. These have wide guards the same as the singles, but with the stamens and anthers greatly enlarged into narrow, thick petaloids of various colors, tipped with vestiges of yellow; the anthers are without pollen. Anemone. A step farther in the process of doubling, with the stamens all transformed into short, narrow petals, forming a round cushion in the center of the flower. Bomb. The next step, in which all the center petals are uni- formly wide, approaching the guards, but distinctly differentiated from them, forming a globe-shaped center without collar or crown. Crown. In this type wide petals are developed in the center of the flower, forming a high crown, with the narrow short petals forming a ring or collar around it. Often the crown and guards are of one color, and the collar another, <>r of a lighter shade. SEMI-ROSE. Flowers in which the petals are all uniformly wide. 72 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY but are loosely built, with a few pollen-bearing stamens visible, or nearly concealed. Rose. The process of doubling is completed, all stamens fully transformed into evenly arranged wide petaloids, similar to the guards, forming a perfect rose-shaped bloom. Twelve years ago, when I attended my first Peony show here, Baroness Schroeder was the acknowledged queen. She was beautiful, and among the most costly, being among the very few for which as much as five dollars was asked, and it was common talk then, that the "Peony Boom" had probably reached its height, and would doubtless soon decline. The Baroness is as beautiful today, but no longer queen, for many kinds now bring from ten to fifteen dollars, and twenty-five to thirty dollars is not at all an uncommon value for a number of varieties, and never were these rare varieties more sought after than today. Among the most talked of Peonies today, besides those of the American growers previously mentioned are first of all Lemoine's Le Cygne, winner of the first prize for the finest single specimen bloom, followed closely by Kelway's Glorious. Along with these should be mentioned Lemoine's Alsace Lorraine, Evangeline, Enchantresse, La Fee, La France, Mirabeau, Mignon, Mont Blanc, Sarah Bernhardt, Solange and Prime vere, the nearest approach to yellow; Dessert's Therese, Francois Rosseau, Mad. De Treyeran, Rosa Bonheur, Tourangelle, and Mons. Martin Cahuzac, the darkest of all Peonies. Kelway's James Kelway, Kelway's Queen, Marchioness of Landsdowne, Miss Salway, Phyllis Kelway, and Venus are all varieties of rare beauty. Many of the new introductions are only known by reputation, for the expensive kinds are often not allowed to come to perfection, being too frequently divided for the purpose of increasing the stock; it is only when they are grown in private gardens, or in specimen collections, where they may remain for at least four years, that real merits are revealed. Consequently, everywhere, as they develop, we discover new treasures, and alas, too, some few disappointments. Among the pleasant surprises in my collections that I had an opportunity to see in perfection for the first time last year was Galathee, a wonderfully full, strong growing, beautifully formed, flesh white, of great size; Philippe Rivoire, dark garnet, of unusual / THE PEONY 73 form, and long keeping qualities; Madam Gaudichau, nearly as dark, and rivaling Mons. Martin Cahuzac in brilliancy, form, and habit; Madam Savreau, with its delicate combination of lilac- white and amber yellow; Jeanne Gaudichau, wonderfully fine in form and color, and finally Pomponette, with its great, wide- petalled, incurved globes of clear rose. For the first time last year, I saw La France and Le Cygne in all their glory, and many others, because now I have a specimen garden established, where they have been allowed to grow to maturity. Passing from novelties and scarce kinds to varieties more plenti- ful which may be had at a cost within the reach of all, and which are obtainable in quantities for mass planting, I would recommend the following list, which comprises varieties that may with certainty be relied upon to flower freely each year under all conditions, all having blooms of the highest quality. The list here given in the various shades covers a period of bloom from earliest to latest in the order named, and coveres a period of from three to four weeks. White. Boule de Neige, Festiva Maxima, Mine. Calot, Duchesse de Nemours, Couronne d'Or, Albatre, Marie Lemoine. White, Shaded Cream and Yellow. Lutea plenissima, Alba Sulphurea, Duke of Wellington, Candidissima, Solfatare, Lutea variegata, Primevere, Princess Maude. Flesh and Light Pink. Umbellata Rosea (the earliest of all), Mme. Coste, Mile. Rosseau, Marguerite Gerard, Albert Crousse, Eugenie Verdier, Venus, Grandiflora, Modele de Perfection. Deep Pink and Rose. Edulia Superba, Mons. Jules Elie, General Bertrand, Mme. Forel, Mme. Muyssart, Henry Murger, Milton Hill. Crimson. Adolphe Rosseau, Pierre Dessert, Mine. Mechin, Bertha, George Washington, Masterpiece, Felix Crousse, Ar- mandine Mechin, Mareehal Yaillant, Rubra Superba (the latest blooming Peony of all). Tricolor. Princess Beatrice, Mme. de Vatry, Alice de Julve- court, Gloire de Charles Gombault, Philomene, Prolifert tricolor. The Following is a List of Peonies Espi i ialli won d for their Unusually Pleasant Fragbani e: Edulia Superba, Comte de Nanteuil, Carnea Elegans (Gr.)i Lamartine ( lal. . Mme. Auguste Peltereau, Mine. Geissler, Mme. Thouvenin, Monsieur 74 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY Barral, Vicomte de Forceville, Zoe Calot, Dorothy Kelway, Kel- way's Glorious, Splendida, Venus, Bertha, Enfante de Nancy, Galathee, La Fee, Mme. de Treyeran, Marcelle Dessert, Mont Blanc (Lemoine), Mireille, Mignon, Primevere. A Short List of the very best Singles will Include: Albi- flora The Bride, Pride of Langport, Madeleine Gauthier, Stanley L'Etincelante, Austin Chamberlain, The Moor. Special Fine Ones in the Japanese Section are : Attraction, Flamboyant, Fuyajo, Ama-no-sode, Margaret Atwood, King of England, Tora-no-Maki, Lemon Queen, Cathedral, Apple Blossom. Succession of Bloom. By including the various early-flowering species, hybrids and Tree Peonies in one's collection, the blooming season may be extended over a period of fully two months. The Tree Peonies bloom quite a month ahead of the Chinensis, beginning early in May. As they do not die to the ground each year, they form in time woody shrubs four to five feet in height, their immense strikingly beautiful blooms sometimes a foot in diameter; they are a wonderful sight. There are color schemes among them never found in the herbaceous section, brilliant scarlets, dark maroons and rich wine colors, deli- cate blush, pure pink and art shades of mauve and violet. Most of the varieties introduced by the European growers are full-double, while a large number of the Japanese sorts are semi-double and single, with a large cushion of thick golden stamens in the center, which produces a beautiful effect. The Tree Peonies as shown here on the screen were grown in Professor C. S. Sargent's garden at Brookline, mostly from seeds of the Japanese sorts. Seeds should be sown immediately after they ripen, either in the open ground protected by a slight covering, or in boxes placed in a cold frame. The young plants will appear the following spring, and will produce varieties equal in every way to the named kinds. Peony Lutea, a deep golden yellow T single Tree Peony was dis- covered a few years ago in the Mountains of Yunnan by the Abbe Delavay. Crosses from this were made by Lemoine with other Tree Peonies. One of them, La Lorraine, was exhibited by me at THE PEONY 75 the American Peony Show in Philadelphia last June, and was given a special Award of Merit. Its blooms, six inches in diameter, are fully double and are a deep yellow. A new Lutea hybrid soon to be introduced to the trade is Souvenir du Maxime Cornu, a deeper color with a shading similar to that in the Mme. Edward Herriot Rose. Lutea and its hybrids bloom later than the other Tree Peonies. The dainty fennel-leafed Peony, P. tenuifolia, follows the Tree Peonies, and its dazzlingly brilliant scarlet flowers always attract attention. It requires careful cultivation and only grows about a foot high. Next in point of interest and season of bloom are Lemoine's Wittmanniana hybrids, produced by crossing the pale yellow Peony Wittmanniana, itself a rather difficult species to grow, with P. Chinensis, resulting in types of strong, vigorous growths, with handsome decorative foliage and large single flowers. There are four of them: Avante Garde, pale rose; Le Printemps, creamy yellow; Mai Fleuri, white shaded salmon; and Messagere, sulphur white. The Officinalis types begin to bloom almost invariably ten days before the Chinensis varieties. Officinalis rubra, the brilliant early red of our grandmothers' gardens belongs to this species, which is a native of Europe. There is a white one, Officinalis alba plena, and a very beautiful large flowered pink one, Rosea Superba, besides a number of named single and double ones not commonly seen. Sabina, L'Oriflamme, Ourika, and La Brilliant are very attractive. Most of the other species are of little interest to the average grower, but I have cut blooms of Triternata and Arietina in April, and of Rubra Superba the 27th of June, a season of quite two months. Cultivation. The cultivation of Peonies is so simple that lengthy instructions seem unnecessary and confusing. They will grow in any situation and in any soil, where one would attempt to raise corn or potato In a light sandy soil they bloom earlier, mature more quickly, the colors are lighter and the season of bloom shorter than when they are planted in a heavy clay loam, where it takes the young plant- 76 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY a year or more longer to reach perfection, but here the growth is stronger, the colors more brilliant, and the flowers are larger and of longer duration. Exactly the same difference is observed be- tween plants grown in the south and middle states, and those grown far north. The Peony is the flower for extremely cold climates, but may be grown in California and in the south if given congenial loamy soil and abundance of water during the growing season and a situation shaded from the sun during the heat of the day. Peonies are gross feeders, reaching their greatest perfection when well fed and the ground frequently cultivated, until the buds begin to show color. If a drought occurs at that stage they should be well watered. Two things they promptly resent: sour, acid soil and fresh manure in direct contact with the roots when first planted. While they absorb an abundance of food when well established and during their active growing period, to plant the young roots in soil overloaded with fresh manure, especially if it is sour, is some- times fatal and invariably causes them to become sick. This is undoubtedly the cause of most of the so-called " club root." The effect is a production of many weak stems, which fail to mature to buds. Peonies should be planted in fresh soil, and any manure used should be thoroughly rotted, carefully worked in, and not allowed to come in direct contact with the roots. Plant so that the eyes are two to three inches below the surface of the ground (too deep planting is injurious). Feeding should be in the form of a good coat of manure over the surface after the ground freezes. This prevents the roots from being thrown out from the heaving caused by alternate freezing and thawing. This covering can be worked into the ground a little distance away from the crowns in early spring, and will furnish the food they need and can then assimilate as active growth begins. When once planted, let them alone for as many years as they seem to thrive, only dividing and replanting when the plants show indications of deterioration; unless for the purpose of increasing the stock which is another matter. For the purpose of propagating, they should be divided every second or third year, but for garden effect Peonies usually reach perfection the fourth year, continuing in good condition several years longer, and in many instances old THE PEONY 77 clumps fifteen to twenty years of age continue to thrive. As a general rule, however, eight years is about the limit. When the clumps begin to show the necessity for replanting, it is best to start again at the beginning with small divisions of clean, smooth roots with three or four eyes, forcing the plant to begin again, and form an entirely new root system. Divisions con- sisting of large chunks of old crowns simply lie inactive in the ground and sometimes decay entirely. It is a common mistake to purchase old, heavy clumps, with the expectation of getting immediate effect and better results. For the first year probably one may, but never thereafter. Time to Plant. Any time in the year when the ground is not frozen, Peonies may be moved successfully, except from the time the buds begin to form until the foliage is matured and the new roots complete their growth, about the middle of August. The very best time is in September and early October. The growth then is fully com- pleted, and the roots in a dormant state. Planted then, the new feeding roots soon begin to form, and strong roots almost invariably bloom the following June. November and December planting is perfectly safe, but bloom must not be expected the first year, and early spring is as good a time to plant as very late fall. If one cannot plant in September or October, it becomes merely a matter of convenience whether to plant in fall or spring. Diseases. The Peony has always been considered singularly free from diseases or insect pests, and to all intents and purposes, so far as the amateur is concerned, this is still true. There are two troubles, however, which within the last few years have given rise to deal of discussion, most of which I believe has been misleading, and since scientists at a Dumber of experiment stations where investigations have been undertaken, do not fully agree upon the nature or the cause of the trouble, and do not suggest a remedy! 78 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY I will simply state my own experiences and conclusions, which I feel sure will tend to allay any needless apprehension on the part of the amateur gardener. In certain seasons under favorable conditions Peonies are subject to fungous attacks manifested first by black spots on the leaves, second, by a blighting of the buds when half opened, or the decay- ing of the half-opened buds at the base of the petals, deforming the flower; third, the extension of the fungous growth down the stem, sometimes its entire length, causing what is commonly called "stem rot," which in severe cases extends down into the roots. Sometimes the stem is first affected, causing it to "damp off" and wilt. The conditions favorable to the spread of fungus seem to be moist, humid weather, with frequent showers, followed by hot sunshine. It may be quite severe one season and disappear en- tirely the following season, and unless the roots themselves are affected, there seems to be no permanent injury, and it is only in a few sections where serious harm has been done, and where I believe the same soil condition and overfeeding, which I have previously explained, have something to do with it. Spraying with Bordeaux mixture as a preventative has been recommended. Where roots are badly affected it is best to replant them in perfectly fresh, sweet soil, free from manure, cutting away all affected parts. The other trouble is variously known as "Nematodes or Eel worms," "Club roots," "Lemoine Disease," etc. There has been much discussion and difference of opinion regarding these so-called diseased roots. I believe it to be more a condition than a disease; a condition brought on usually, as previously stated, by the exces- sive use of manure when the roots are newly planted and before they can properly assimilate the overdose. It is manifested by distorted, undeveloped roots, covered with lumpy knots and nodules. An unusual number of eyes are formed, sending up many stems of weak growth, which do not mature flower buds. This condition can also be produced by too deep planting, the use of large divisions of old worn-out roots, or by planting in a sour, pasty soil, or anything which seems to check a healthy action of the roots. My remedy is to cut the infected roots into very small divisions of one or two eyes, shorten the roots to two or three inches, and THE PEOXY 79 replant in perfectly fresh soil without any manure. This forces an entirely new system of root growth, and so treated, the trouble usually disappears in a year or two. Some varieties appear to be more susceptible than others, and occasionally the trouble persists for a number of years. If these happen to be cheap kinds, it is usually better to discard them and start new with clean roots; with expensive varieties, however, it pays to have a little patience with them. Practically all the novelties from Europe that have come to us from very old gardens, are affected when we first get them, and if we were to reject them on this account, we would have to forego such wonderful varieties as Le Cygne, La France, Mont Blanc, etc., in fact, nearly all the fine new French varieties, all more or less affected when first received, but which after coming from old, worn out soil, soon outgrow this trouble when planted in new ground here. Remember, you can take the smoothest, healthiest roots from one place, plant them in a sour soil over- saturated with fresh manure, and get the most beautiful specimen of club root the following year. Fortunately it is not contagious as many have claimed, for you can plant affected roots in good soil side by side with healthy ones, and I have never known a single case where the healthy roots were affected by them, which con- vinces me that the sick plants are simply suffering from a cause similar to what we would describe as an inactive liver or a bad case of biliousness in our own systems. To sum up, fungous attacks are local, due to weather conditions, and only occasionally seriously destructive. Club roots are due to overfeeding, improper soil or planting, and is not contagious. Cut off and burn dead foliage in the fall and use hardwood ashes or lime as a fertilizer for acid soil, applying manure as a top dressing only until plants are in active growth. THE DISEASES OF ROSES. By Louis M. Massey, Assistant Professor of Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. Read before the Society, February 23, 1918. The John Lewis Russell Lecture. The rose was probably the first flower cultivated for ornament or for perfume. Being native to the north temperate zone it occurs within these limits entirely around the world and is grown in all temperate climates. Millions of roses for the market are produced in large glasshouses in order that blossoms may be had throughout the year. In the value of the crop the rose easily leads all other flowers grown under glass, while its importance as a garden plant is too well known to need comment. That the rose is subject to numerous diseases is a matter of common observation. Doubtlessly all growers and fanciers are familiar with the two most serious diseases, black-spot and mildew. These may be said to be ubiquitous, while the attention of rosarians is focused on various other diseases of more or less general occur- rence as they assume an epiphytotic nature. Some of the diseases are fairly common in the wild but have come into prominence only as the rose has become of commercial importance. Other diseases have probably had a later development and arc becoming of more and more importance under present intensive methods of propagation. In catering to the demands of the trade and of the fanciers, many new types have been developed by breeding and it is probable that the natural resistance of wild forms brought about through the process of the survival of the fittest lias been sacrificed. The scarcity of definite information is one of the noticeable phases of the subject "diseases of rOS< This situation finds explanation in the fact that diseases of ornamental plants in general Bl 82 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY usually have been studied by pathologists either as an incident to other investigations or by mycologists interested in taxonomy. Many recommendations for the control of diseases have been made without due consideration being given to the conditions and needs either of the commercial grower or of the fancier. Sprays which will discolor foliage and buildings may be more objectionable than the disease itself, with the result that growers have been loath to use many of them even though their efficiency in suppress- ing specific diseases has been established. Further investigation of rose diseases is highly desirable. Black-spot. Probably the most common and destructive disease of the rose is black-spot. It occurs wherever roses are grown, nearly all the cultivated varieties both out-of-doors and under glass being affected, although not all varieties are equally susceptible. Roses of the Hybrid-Perpetual and Pernetiana groups are considered most susceptible. Laubert and Schwartz (I) 1 hold that bushy sorts are more susceptible than climbers and also that those with thin leaves are more liable to attack. The writer has observed that practically all bush roses, Hybrid-Perpetuals, Hybrid-Teas, Teas, and Pernetianas, are more or less susceptible, while those of the types Multiflora and Wichuraiana are comparatively free from attack. Hybrids of Rosa rugosa and moss roses are rarely affected, although Scribner (2) states that " moss roses and those with thick rough leaves seem to suffer more than other kinds." This worker may have confused an abnormal condition of the leaves of moss roses known as "bronzing" with black-spot. 2 Names applied to the disease. Several names have been used to designate the disease under consideration, among which are black-spot, leaf -blotch, star-shaped leaf -spot, and rose-actinonema. It is perhaps best known as " black-spot," this name being generally accepted and adhered to both by scientific workers and growers. History and distribution. The black-spot of roses is not a new 1 Numbers in parentheses refer to a bibliography at the end of this paper. 2 Stone, G. E., and Smith, R. E. The bronzing of rose leaves. In Report of the botanist, Mass. Agr. Ex. Sta. Rept. 11: 156-159. 1899. DISEASES OF ROSES 83 disease, being first noted in Italy in 1824. 1 It was probably present many years before this date and has long been known to the rose- growers of Europe. In 1825 the Hybrid-Perpetual began to take first place in the rose world, and as this class is probably the most susceptible to black-spot it is not surprising that references to the disease began to appear more and more in articles on the cultiva- tion of roses. Saccardo 2 notes the occurrence of black-spot in France, England, Italy, Belgium, Germany, Austria, Portugal, and North America. No special attention has been given the disease by American in- vestigators until in more recent years when, due to the more intense cultivation of the rose or the production of more susceptible varie- ties, it has come to be considered the worst enemy of this plant. Possibly the first report of the disease in America was by Scribner (2) in 1888. Both Maynard (3) and Humphrey (4) record observa- tions on the disease the following year. Subsequently the disease has been reported as occurring in practically every part of the United States and it is safe to state that black-spot exists wherever roses are grown. Economic Importance. Black-spot is probably the most im- portant of all the many diseases of the rose. It is both an enphy- totic and an epiphytotic disease of out-of-doors plants, being more or less abundant every year and in seasons especially favorable for its development, attacking and defoliating a large percentage of all garden roses. Under glass the disease is practically always present, ready to become epiphytotic as soon as proper conditions of tem- perature and moisture develop. The extreme susceptibility of Hybrid Perpetual roses to black-spot is one of the factors contrib- uting to their decrease in popularity. The great susceptibility of the Pernetiana group to this disease threatens to be the limiting factor in its popularity unless some practical methods of control are developed. Symptoms. Although the lesions sometimes occur well down on the petioles and even in the case of some varieties on all the aerial parts of the plant 3 the disease is confined practically entirely to the 1 Fries, E. Observationes mycologicae, p. 207. 'Saccardo, P. A. Sylloge fungorum 3:408. 18S1. • Chifflot, J. The extension of Mnrsonia rosa? on rose hushes. Assoc. Franc. Avanc. Sci. Comp. Rend. 48: 426-428. 1914. 84 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY leaves. The more or less circular spots may reach a diameter of a centimeter or more, are black in color and are characterized by radiate-fibrillose margins. They usually appear late in the spring or early in the summer and occur only on the upper surface of the leaf. The spots are small at first but increase in size as the disease progresses. Often a number of them coalesce and in severe attacks the entire leaf may be covered with large dark patches. In the latter part of the season the spots frequently grow light in color and dry in the center showing this part of the leaf to be entirely dead. Very commonly the leaf tissue adjacent to the black spots becomes chlorotic before the leaves fall from the plant, and not uncommonly all of the uninvaded tissue becomes yellow before defoliation occurs. The leaflets may turn yellow in spots, while sometimes the yellow area is limited to a band outside the black spot. Commonly, and especially during the autumn the yellow color appears at the apex of the leaflets whence it spreads downward and is succeeded by brown. A leaf with a green base and brown tip with a yellow band between is very characteristic of this disease. Premature defoliation is one of the most pronounced charac- teristics of this disease. Affected leaves may fall before they turn yellow, the slightest jar or breeze often causing them to drop in great numbers. Diseased plants usually have a partially defoliated appearance. The size and shape of the black spots, the rapidity, and the extent of defoliation of plants, seem to vary with the variety. No reports of observations on these points are to be found in literature. Etiology. Black-spot of the rose is caused by a fungous parasite, Diplo- carpon rosae Wolf, long known under the name of Adinonema rosae (Lib.) Fries. Life History of the Parasite. Diplocarpon rosae has two phases in its life cycle — an actively parasitic phase developed during the summer and a saprophytic DIBI LB1 - of rosis So phase in which the fungous lives during the winter on dead and decaying tissue. An examination of the lesions on the leaves during the summer will show the presence of small hlack pustules which are the fruit- bodies of the fungus. In these fruit-bodies the conidia or summer- spores are born. These spores are matured rapidly during the -rowing season and are blown about by the wind, thus distributing the fungus and bringing about successive infections with new crops of conidia. This phase of the fungus is the one most commonly met with and has been known under the name of Actinonnna rosae (Lib.) Fries for many years. During the winter the sexual or ascigerous phase develops. When leaves affected with black-spot fall to the ground during the summer and autumn, the fungus does not die but lives over winter as a normal saprophyte. If examined microscopically during the spring it will be found that another spore-form has developed. In this stage spherical fruit-bodies (perithecia) bearing numerous sacs or asci, each of which contains eight ascospores, are produced in the old leaves lying about on the ground. These fruit-bodies serve to carry the fungus over the winter, the spores being mature at the time of opening of the rose leaves in the spring. Inoculation. The old leaves on the ground are to be considered the chief source of primary inoculum in the spring. However, the fungus is carried over winter on plants under glass from which conidia could be carried readily by the wind to the newly develop- ing leaves on out-of-doors plants. Growers frequently buy pot grown plants in the spring to plant in their gardens and are likely to thus carry the fungus to the plants which were out-of-doors during the winter. Scribner (2) who was acquainted only with the asexual stage suggests that the spores (asexual) lodge on the buds in the autumn and remain there dormant until the leaves have expanded the following autumn. In warmer climates the conidia may live over winter and serve as inoculum the following spring. No special investigations on this point have been reported in literature. Wolf (5) could find in wintered material no acervuli which were bearing conidia. It seems very improbable that the conidia winter in any sections of Massachusetts or places having similar temperatures. The evidence derived from observations 86 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY on the parasite warrant the conclusion that, as has been found to be true of many fungi, this fungus is carried through the winter on fallen leaves in which the ascosporic stage develops the following spring. Although when mature the asci discharge the spores through an apical pore formed by the rupture of the wall, the spores are apparently not discharged with violence. Wolf states that they merely pile up in a whitish heap in the opened perithecium. How they reach the unfolding leaves of the plant has never been defi- nitely determined, but it is probable that insects, splashing rain, and possible the wind play an important part. Man, in cultivating, may also serve as an agent of inoculation. The maturity of the ascospores and the occurrence of rainy periods when the spores are mature are factors governing spore discharge. Inoculation. The ascospores which are probably distributed during a rainy period require moisture to germinate and penetrate the host. They germinate within twenty-four hours. Wolf (5) found the period of incubation to be about ten days, small black areas being evident on May 7 from inoculations made on April 27. Infection. Infection occurs by the entrance of the germ-tube directly through the cuticle of the leaf. The resulting mycelium remains for some time immediately beneath the cuticle, later penetrating the tissues below, first filling the epidermal cells and only in advanced stages of the disease penetrating the mesophyll. The black appearance of the spots is not due to the fungus, which is almost colorless, but to the disintegration of the cells below the spot. Environmental Relations. Temperature and especially moisture are factors which may influence the severity of the disease by their effect on the parasite and the host. It is a matter of common observation that green- house roses are more subject to this disease in the spring and autumn when extremes of temperature are most likely to occur. Frequent rains and general cloudiness are important factors at these times. Many growers of indoor roses claim that if the plants DISEASES OF ROSES 87 can be carried through late summer and autumn prior to the time when firing begins without suffering an epiphytotic of black-spot there is little danger of plants being badly diseased during the winter. No doubt exceptions occur, but the most badly diseased houses noted by the speaker in visits to growers were those where firing was begun late. The natural heat of summer and artificial heat of winter quickly dries off the foliage and must thus be in- strumental in lessening infection. It is very improbable that the ascigerous stage develops in the fallen leaves under glass. Out-of-doors, where primary infection is initiated by ascospores formed during the winter in old leaves left lying on the ground, it is obvious that the spring rains are important factors, as moisture is necessary for the discharge of these ascospores from the perithe- cia. Moisture supplied either by rainfall or by dew is probably necessary for the germination of both the ascospores and conidia so that a greater amount of disease may be expected during rainy seasons. It is a matter of common observation that whereas more or less black-spot is present every year, epiphytotics on out- of-doors plants only occur during seasons of heavy rainfall. The precipitation of dew on the foliage during the autumn when cold nights and warm days prevail may account for the increased amount of disease at this time. Lesions on the leaves are more numerous and perhaps larger in rainy, cloudy seasons than in dry seasons. When conditions favorable to black-spot are known a big step will have been taken toward the control of this disease, especially under glass. Control. Sanitation. Since the fungus lives over winter in fallen leaves, where the ascospores are produced which serve as the source of primary infection in the spring for out-of-doors roses, it follows that these should be carefully collected and burned late in the autumn. It is also advisable to keep the benches free from old leaves affected with the disease, for they bear the summer spores and thus serve as sources of infection. Where a rose garden consists of only a few plants much may be accomplished by picking and burning every leaf as soon as it shows signs of disease. 88 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY Protection. Protection by spraying is the usual recommendation for the control of the disease of roses caused by Diplocarpon rosae Wolf. Of the numerous fungicides recommended in literature probably bordeaux mixture and ammoniacal copper carbonate are the two most often mentioned. Statements to the effect that the latter fungicide is as efficacious as the former are common in liter- ature. Results of the following experiments conducted in 1917 indicate that ammoniacal copper carbonate is not as efficient as bordeaux mixture for the control of the disease. A mixture of 90 parts finely ground sulfur and 10 parts powdered arsenate of lead dusted upon the plants proved to be as efficient as bordeaux mixture and its use rendered the plants far less unsightly than the latter fungicide. Lime-sulfur solution, 1 part of the commercial con- centrated solution to 50 parts water, was found to be more efficient than ammoniacal copper carbonate and probably as much so as bordeaux mixture and the sulfur-lead dust. However, lime-sulfur discolors the foliage almost as much as bordeaux mixture. Experiments in the nursery. In the experiments performed in the nursery there were nine rows of rose plants, each of a single variety, the following eight varieties being involved: J. B. Clark, Gruss an Teplitz (2 rows), Prince Camille de Rohan, Clio, Mrs. John Laing, John Hopper, Madame Gabriel Luizet, and Margaret Dickson. A part of each row of plants was included in each of the different plats. There were 450 plants in each of the five plats which were treated as follows: plat 1, dusted with sulfur 90 parts, and arsenate of lead 10 parts; plat 2, sprayed with bordeaux mixture, 5-5-50; plat 3, sprayed with lime-sulfur solution 1 to 50; plat 4, sprayed with Hammond's copper solution, 1 1 to 100; plat 5, untreated. The first applications of dust and spray were made on May 31. All of the buds had opened and most of the leaves were well de- veloped on this date. Subsequent applications were made on June 12, June 23, July 4, July 24, August 2, and August 25. Final data were recorded on September 13, the middle row (variety Clio) being 1 Hammond's Copper solution is a cupro-ammonium wash containing according to the manufacturer 3.05 percent metallic copper. DISEASES OF ROSES 89 selected and the number of infected leaflets counted on twenty plants. The part of the row included in each plat consisted of approximately sixty plants, and the data were obtained from every other plant in the central area. Defoliation was not taken into consideration. From observations it was determined that the amount of defoliation varied directly with the percentage of leaflet infection in the various plats. The percentage of diseased leaflets for each plat was as follows: sulfur 90 parts and arsenate of lead 10 parts, 7.66; bordeaux mixture 5-5-50, 8.51; lime-sulfur solution 1 to 50, 24.43; Ham- mond's copper solution 1 to 100, 37.77; untreated 80. A point to be noted in the above experiment is the fact that the plat treated with lime-sulfur solution was situated on low ground where there was poor drainage. Owing to the heavy precipitation throughout the season these plants were subjected to more moist conditions than those in the other plats which had better drainage. Consequently it is probable that lime-sulfur is more efficient in the control of rose black-spot than the above results would indicate. This probability is further emphasized by the following experi- ments. Experiments in the test gardex of the American Rose Society. A somewhat similar experiment for the control of Diplocarpon rosac was conducted in the test garden of the American Rose Society at Ithaca, New York. Here the plants were arranged in beds, there being on an average, four varieties of six plants each in a bed. There were six plats, each of which included twelve beds, treated as follows: plat 1, dusted with sulfur 90 parts and arsenate of lead 10 parts; plat 2, sprayed with ammoniacal copper carbon- ate; l plat 3, sprayed with lime-sulfur 1 to 50; plat 4. sprayed with fungi-bordo 5-5-50; - plat 5, sprayed with Hammond's copper solution 1 to 100; plat 6, untreated. 1 The ammoniacal copper carl>onate solution was compos.-. I of ". QUI honate. :\ pints of ammonium hydroxid (sp. gr. 0.90), ami ."><) gftDoni of water. 2 Fuiifri-honlo is ;i dry. finely cround mixture of mhy drOUi QOppM sulphate and hydrated lime. It was used at the rate of 10 pounds to ."><> gallon- of w.itrr whuh i^ approxim equivalent to a 5-5-50 bordeaux mixture. 90 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY During the summer thirteen treatments were made on the following dates: May 26, June 4, June 11, June 18, June 24, July 3, July 13, July 20, July 31, August 9, August 21, August 29, and September 9. Final observations were made on September 24. Due to the fact that the plats did not contain the same varieties it was im- possible to compare the treatments by determining the percentage of diseased leaflets. Gross observations were made by the writer who also obtained the opinion of the gardener and others not directly interested in the work. The plants of the dusted plat and those sprayed with fungi-bordo and lime-sulfur solution stood out in sharp contrast to the other plants in the garden due to their healthy leaves and heavy foliation. It was impossible to deter- mine from gross observations which of these treatments was most efficient. The plats treated with ammoniacal copper carbonate and with Hammond's copper solution contained but slightly less affected plants than the check, and marked defoliation occurred in all three plats. From these experiments it would seem that lime-sulfur solution 1 to 50, bordeaux mixture 5-5-50, and the dust mixture consisting of 90 parts finely ground sulfur and 10 parts arsenate of lead, are three efficient fungicides for the control of black-spot of the rose, while Hammond's copper solution and ammoniacal copper car- bonate solution are much less efficient. Due to its ease of applica- tion and to the fact that its use discolors the foliage less than the other two, the sulfur-lead dust l is to be given the preference. Powdery-mildew. Powdery-mildew is one of the most common and injurious diseases of the rose, especially of plants grown under glass. Out- of-doors plants are commonly attacked, the Crimson Rambler and related forms being especially susceptible. Varieties differ greatly in susceptibility. The disease was held by investigators to occur 1 The sulfur-lead dust was obtained from the Union Sulphur Company and was so finely ground that at least 98 per cent would pass through a 200-mesh sieve. It was applied with a hand duster. DISEASES OF ROSES 91 on the peach, apricot, almond, and cherry-laurel until Woronichin (9) proved it to be confined to the rose. Symptoms. The first signs of the disease are grayish, or whitish spots on the young leaves and shoots. Frequently, the unopened buds are white with mildew before the leaves are affected to any great extent. These spots quickly enlarge, a felt-like coating of a white, powdery appearance being commonly found on the stems and thorns. Later the mildew appearance is less conspicuous or entirely lost, the affected areas turning black. Dwarfing, curling and various deformations of young leaves, stems and buds occur. Injured leaves may fall, and the leaf sur- face of the plant may be greatly reduced. Growth and flower production is materially interfered with, young buds being fre- quently attacked and rendered entirely worthless. Etiology. Powdery mildew is caused by the fungus Sphaerotheca pannosa (Wallr.) Lev. rosac "YYor. Identity. The fungus was first reported by Wallroth 1 under the name of Alphitomorpha pannosa. Subsequently the fungus was called Eurotium rosarum by Greville, 2 Erysibe pannosa by Schlechtendahl 3 and Link, 4 and Erysiphc pannosa by Fries. 5 Leveille 6 transferred the fungus from the genus Erysiphe to Sphaerotheca. Salmon (7) states that roses in America are attacked by two species of fungi, viz., Sphaerotheca pannosa and S. kumUi and that the American fungus which has passed under the name of S. pannosa is for the most part S. hum Hi. He had seen only two speci- mens of true S. pannosa from America. Stewart (8) reports several cases of rose-mildew in which the fungus was unquestionably S. pannosa. 1 Wnllroth. K. F. W. Naturgeschichte dea Mucor Erysiphe L. Berl. Qm. N«V Fr.*unde Verhandl. 1:6-45. 1819. » Greville, B. K. Boottkfa Crypto |amk Flora 3: pL 164 hlecbtaodaU, D. F. L. von. Flora D a mBu e u * 1: 168-170 1894 ♦Link. H. F. WBUflDOW, Sp.-ci.-> PI. ml mini 6: I'M l^-'t 8 Fries, E. Byt— ■ Myoologfcuni 1:836. 18 « Leveille, J. H. tan Mi. nat. HI, 19: 188, pi 6, 0* . 8. 1861. 92 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY Woronichin (9) reports experiments with the fungi causing powdery-mildew of the rose and peach in which negative results were obtained from inoculations on the peach with the fungus causing the disease of rose. He also states that a study of the perithecia, asci, and spores of the fungi from the two hosts showed differences in their dimensions. He concludes that the biological and morphological differences noted are sufficient to separate the species into the varieties S. pannosa rosae and S. pannosa persicae. Morphology. Under the microscope the white patches on the rose plant are seen to consist of a mould-like growth (mycelium) composed of slender white threads with numerous branches which form a net-work over the surface of the leaf. At various points upright branches are developed which bear chains of egg-shaped spores. These spores are easily detached and lie in masses giving the older spots a powdery appearance. They are produced throughout the year under glass, but only during the summer on plants growing in the open. At various points the mycelial threads are attached to the surface of the host, minute branches called haustoria being sent into the outer cells of leaf or stem from which the fungus obtains its food supply. The cells into which the haustoria are sent may be stimulated at first but are killed sooner or later. Somewhat rarely, and probably only out of doors, ascospores are produced in spore-cases called asci which in turn are born singly in dark fruit-bodies (perithecia) embedded in the felt-like growth on stems, thorns and leaves. These ascospores can live over winter out-of-doors and may serve as the inocula the following spring. . Life history of the parasite. Norton (10) states that it is probable that the mycelium of the fungus is able to live over winter out-of-doors in the buds of roses. Others assert that the mycelium is perennial, reappearing in suc- cessive years on the same shoots of infected plants. Salmon notes that in specimens examined the fresh centers of disease which appear in the spring did not occur at the places where the fungus grew in the previous year. The fact that sexual spores are somewhat rare DISEASES OF ROSES 93 might be considered as evidence favoring the claim that the mycelium is perennial. In countries of warm climates the fungus is doubtless carried throughout the year in the asexual stage as is true on roses grown under glass where the temperature does not fall sufficiently low to kill the spores and mycelium. There are, then, two and possibly three sources of primary infection in the spring. First and of primary importance is the production of ascospores which live over winter in perithecia on plants grown out-of-doors. These spores are distributed by the wind, rain, man, and other agents and, under proper conditions of temperature, moisture and position, germinate and produce in- fection. The second source of inoculum for roses in the open is the distribution of asexual spores formed throughout the year on roses under glass. These spores are very light and might readily be carried by the wind for great distances. Growers frequently buy pot-grown roses in the spring to plant in their gardens. Some of these plants may be affected and often the fungus spreads quickly to other bushes. The third possible source of inoculum is the production of conidia by mycelium which has overwintered on plants in the open. Some doubt exists, as stated above, as to whether or not the mycelium is perennial in sections having rela- tively cold winters. Spores, then, either ascospores or summer spores, are carried to rose plants in the spring where under proper conditions they germi- nate. The germ-tube coming from the spore quickly elongates, branches and soon establishes a food relation with the host by sending haustoria into the epidermal cells. Very soon thousands of new spores are produced which when mature are canied by the slightest air currents to other parts of the plant and to other bushes. Many florists believe that rose mildew is caused by drafts, having noticed the initial appearance of the disease in the areas in the greenhouse near doors or broken panes of glass. Needless to Bay mildew cannot develop without the presence of the fungus, the drafts Berving as bearers of spores and possibly bringing about favorable conditions for infection, either by its effect on the h< or on the fungus, or on both. 94 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY Control. A. Roses out of doors. The efficiency of sulfur fungicides for the control of rose mildew has long been recognized. Lime-sulfur and other liquid sprays are more or less effective but owing to the time and labor involved in applying spray solutions and to the unsightliness brought about by their use, an efficient dust mixture is preferable. Stewart (11) reports good control of rose mildew by the use of a dust mixture consisting of 90 parts sulfur and 10 parts arsenate of lead. A similar mixture was used by the writer in 1917 and it was found to be decidedly more efficient than lime- sulfur solution 1 to 50 or bordeaux mixture 5-5-50. A row of Crimson Rambler bushes planted thickly and forming an arbor about five hundred feet in length was divided into four sections of equal length and treated as follows: section 1, sprayed with bordeaux mixture 5-5-50; section 2, sprayed with lime- sulfur solution 1 to 50; section 3, dusted with sulfur 90 parts and arsenate of lead 10 parts; section 4, untreated. The first application of dust and spray was made on August 2. Mildew appeared between this date and August 16, when the second application was made. Another application was made on August 25. The experiment was terminated on September 13. On this date the dusted bushes were practically free from mildew, only a few infected shoots being apparent. The bushes treated with bordeaux mixture and lime-sulfur were severely infected and were but slightly less free from the disease than the untreated bushes. Besides its superiority in fungicidal value the dust mix- ture rendered the plants far less unsightly than the bordeaux mixture or the lime-sulfur solution. The latter fungicide appeared to be slightly more efficient than bordeaux mixture. B. Under Glass. Florists commonly paint the heating pipes with mixtures of sulfur and lime for the control of mildew, the sulfur being thus evaporated and condensed on the plants where the fungus is killed. Maynard (12) recommends the use of evap- orated sulfur, a small kerosene stove with a thin iron kettle being used and the sulfur kept boiling two or three hours a week in a closed house. Both methods have given good results, the use of a DISEASES OF ROSES 95 kerosene stove or other means of heating the sulfur being neces- sary at times when the houses are not artificially heated. The use of the sulfur-lead dust on roses under glass will undoubtedly control the disease and may in many cases be a more desirable method than that of using evaporated sulfur. Crown -Canker. An important disease of the rose, to which the name crown- canker has been given, was first observed by the writer (13) in September, 1916, affecting American Beauty plants. The grower stated that he had had the disease under observation during the past four or five years, a few plants being affected each year and the disease being confined to a single house. Subsequently plants affected with the crown-canker disease have been received from eight growers, the states of Missouri, Penn- sylvania, Indiana, Michigan, Massachusetts, and New York being represented. A Missouri grower observed the disease in 1916 on the varieties Hoosier Beauty and Ophelia growing on their own roots. An eastern grower was of the opinion in 1916 that all of his many thousands of plants were affected, and it is the opinion of the writer, after having examined his plants, that at least a very large percentage of them were diseased. During the four years prior to 1916 increasingly poor results were obtained by this grower who when interviewed in November, 1916 was planning to destroy his plants, sterilize houses and soil, and begin anew with healthy stock. Rose plants of the varieties Hoosier Beauty, Ophelia, Hadley, Mrs. Charles Russell, Sunburst, American Beauty, and many seedlings have been observed affected with the disease. Both grafted plants and those growing on their own roots are affected. It is questionable whether or not any variety is immune. Indica- tions are that this may prove to be the most important disease of rose- grown under glass. To date no record has been made of tliis disease on out-of-doors plants. Symptoms. Diseased plants are affected at the crown, usually just at the surface of the soil, the lesion in advanced cases frequently 96 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY extending several inches above the soil. The writer has not determined to what extent the root systems are commonly affected. However, lesions have been observed near the tips of roots of four- years-old plants, and of several plants examined unquestionably the entire root system of each plant was affected. The union of scion and stock, and the area immediately above, is the most common point of attack. The first indication of the disease is a slight discoloration of the bark. As the disease advances the color deepens to black and the tissue appears water-soaked (plate 1, figs. 1, 3). At first the lesions are irregular in outline with a somewhat sharply defined margin. Later as the affected area increases in size the blackened color of the diseased area is blended more with the healthy tissue. The lesions frequently encircle the stem. Soon cracks appear in the bark extending in to the wood (plate 1, fig. 2). Later a swelling of the stem as from girdling occurs at and above the affected area, the cracks becoming deeper and more evident. In old lesions the black, water-soaked appearance is lost. Sometimes the stem is encircled by a shrunken area which contrasts sharply with the swollen area immediately above. One very noticeable characteristic of this disease is the punky consistency of the diseased tissue, especially that affected under- ground. When scraped, the bark, sapwood and frequently the roots appear punky and lifeless, not uncommonly in areas where no definite lesion is evident. Suckers developing from the roots of diseased plants are usually spindling and yellow. They are commonly affected at the point of attachment to the main stem, the tissue being blackened and of a punky texture. Affected plants do not die quickly but linger on and yield in- creasingly poor and few blossoms. It is practically impossible to force such plants to increased activity by heavy applications of fertilizers. The foliage of plants affected with this disease is fre- quently of a lighter green color than that of healthy plants. Prob- ably the number of plants actually killed within the duration of time they are usually kept by growers is very small, but the normal activities of the plant are so materially interfered with that diseased plants can be grown only at a financial loss. DISEASES OF ROSES 97 Cause. Crown-canker of the rose is caused by the fungus Cylindrocladium scoparium. This organism was first reported from Ohio where it was found growing saprophytically on a pod of the honey-locust. Later it was found living on dead paw-paw leaves. The writer described the fungus as a parasite on the rose in December, 1917. Although spores of the fungus have never been found by the writer on plants growing in the benches, they frequently develop in from two to five days on diseased rose plants when kept in a moist chamber. Consequently they are probably formed in the greenhouse on plants growing under moist conditions. Spores placed in water germinated after three to twelve hours. They are thin walled and probably not long lived. Just what part they play in disseminating the fungus is unknown. Infection of plants is readily obtained by spraying them with water containing viable spores in suspension. Moisture Relation. Moisture apparently plays an important role in the severity of the disease. Lesions on stems well above the surface of the soil resulting from artificial inoculations appear to dry and make no further progress unless kept moist by being surrounded with wet cotton or some such substance. Inoculations made at a point several inches above the soil frequently result as above. One grower who has had considerable experience with crown-canker is of the opinion that the disease is lessened by placing plants with the graft union above the soil, thereby preventing infection at this point. The same grower stated that the seriousness of the disease is reduced by pulling the soil away from the crown of the plant, thus creating a more dry condition at this point. These are un- desirable methods, for grafted plants usually develop roots at the graft union when planted sufficiently deep. It is the opinion of the writer that the fungus is low in parasitism and that conditions of moisture are important factors in its development. Control. Although experiments are under way in the hope of developing some method of controlling tin- crown-canker of r no definite results are yet at hand. From the nature of the fungus 98 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY and judging from results to date it would seem that control will resolve itself into some method of soil treatment, probably soil sterilization. The fungus grows well on both acid and alkalin media so that the possibility of control by developing an acid or alkalin condition of the soil does not appear to be promising. Soil sterilization and the exercise of care in using only healthy stock and scions for grafting may be the only feasible method of controlling the disease. Investigations of control measures are being con- ducted in cooperation with Professors A. V. Osmun and P. J. Anderson of the Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station. Progress to date has been encouraging and it is hoped that some- thing definite can be offered growers in the near future. Crown-Gall. This is a very common disease of the rose, both of plants grown under glass and out-of-doors. It is the common crown-gall disease of the nursery, affecting many woody plants, trees, and shrubs, as well as herbaceous plants. Roses in benches are frequently severely affected. Much interest in recent years has been attached to the study of this disease because of its resemblance to malignant human tumors, with the possibility that light may be thrown upon the latter. History and distribution. The disease has been known in Europe for over fifty years, being generally ascribed to frosts and mechani- cal injuries by many workers. According to Smith, Townsend and Brown (14), Scalia described a tumor occurring an old stems of the rose near the surface of the earth, but also frequently higher up. It is impossible to be quite certain that the disease described by Scalia is identical with the crown-gall of the rose as it occurs in this country. In the United States references to the disease in literature begin about the year 1892, but undoubtedly the disease has been present for a long time. It has been reported as occurring in all the states. Economic importance. Opinions differ as to just how much damage this disease causes to roses. Skilled gardeners are gener- ally of the opinion that serious injury is done, diseased plants being DISEASES OF ROSES 99 smaller and bearing less foliage and less vigorous flowers. It seems obvious that the energy used up in the production of galls, which are often large, must be at the expense of the general needs of the plant, resulting in an inferior product. Symptoms. Crown-gall exhibits itself in the production of galls or tubercles, usually on the roots or the crowns of the plants, but not infrequently on parts of the plant above ground. Smaller and younger galls range in color from green to white and are soft and spongy. As the galls become older they increase in size, frequently reaching a diameter of several inches and darken in color externally. The surface is rough, sometimes convoluted, and usually the galls become firm and hard with age. Etiology. Crown-gall is a bacterial disease caused by Bacterium tume- jaciens Sm. and Town. The greater number of European observers assigned the cause of the disease to physical agents, such as late frosts and winter killing. Others thought the disease might be brought about by injuries received from insects, while still others believed that the disease was caused by bacteria, fungi, or slime-moulds, although the pathogenicity of none of the suspected organisms was established. In April, 1907, Smith and Townsend (15) described a plant tumor of bacterial origin, giving conclusive proof of the patho- genicity of the organism Bacterium tumejaciens which was isolated from the galls of the Paris daisy. Galls were produced on tobacco, tomato, potato, sugar-beet, hop, and peach by artificial inocula- tion. In December, 1908, at a meeting of the Botanical Society of America, Townsend (16) reported the results of further experi- ments with the organism from the Paris daisy. A bacterium was isolated from a gall on roses and other plants which appeared to be identical with that isolated from the daisy. The organisms from the different hosts were cross-inoculal>l<\ Smith, Townsend and Brown (14) report successful infections on the rose with the patho- gene isolated from galls on this and other plants, and records 100 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY experiments tending to show a wide range of natural cross-inocula- bility. Life History. It is probable that the bacteria causing crown-gall must enter the plant through wounds. The development of certain cells in the host plant is stimulated resulting in the formation of large galls. The size of the tumors, other things being equal, depends on how rapidly the plants are growing. The galled tissue is often of a soft fleshy nature and is much subject to decay. Tumor strands develop into the normal tissue as roots of the tumor, in the substance of which secondary tumors arise. These secondary tumors rupture their way to the surface. The bacterium is a soil organism, probably being able to live in the soil for years without losing its virulence. Its entrance into the host is favored by careless grafting and by the presence of borers, nematodes, and the like. Control. Since B. twnefaciens is a soil organism, growers should plan to keep their soil free from it by planting only healthy stock. All plants should be carefully inspected for galls before they are set in the benches. It is advisable to burn all cuttings showing galls. Do not plant healthy plants in soil in which diseased plants have grown. Infested soil should be sterilized by steam or re- placed by soil in which no diseased plants have grown. When infested soil is removed from the greenhouse the benches should be thoroughly disinfected. The removal of galls from plants is of doubtful value. Once a plant is affected no treatment will cure it. Bibliography. 1. Laubert, R., and Schwarz, M. Rosenkrankheiten und Rosenfeinde, pp. I-VI + 59. 1910. 2. Scribner, F. L. Black spot of rose leaves. U. S. Dept. Agr. Report 1887: 366-369. 1888. 3. Maynard, S. T. Rose leaf blight (Actinonema rosse). Mass. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bui. 4: 10. 1889. 4. Humphrey, J. E. The black spot of rose leaves. Mass Agr. Exp. Sta. Bui. 6: 13-15. 1889. 5. Wolf. F. A. The perfect stage of Actinonema rosse. Bot. Gaz.' 54: 218-234. 1912. DISEASES OF ROSES 101 6. Wolf, F. A. The perfect stage of the rose Actinonema. Science X. S. 35:152. 1912. 7. Salmon, E. S. Sphserotheca pannosa (Wallr.) Lev. In A Monograph of the Erysiphaceae. Mem. Torr. Bot. Club 9:65-70. 1900. 8. Stewart, F. C. Powdery mildew. In Notes on New York Plant Diseases, I. New York (Geneva) Agr. Exp. Sta. Bui. 328:390-391. 1910. 9. Woronichin, N. N. Bui. Trimest. Soc. France 30:391-401. 1914. 10. Norton, J. B. S., and White, T. H. Rose mildew. Maryland Agr. Exp. Station. Bui. 156: 73-80. 1911. 11. Stewart, V. B. Experiment for the control of rose mildew. In Dusting nursery stock for the control of leaf diseases. New York (Cornell) Agr. Exp. Sta. Circ. 32: 9. 1916. 12. Maynard, S. T. Treatment of mildews upon plants under glass. Jour. Mycol. 6: 16-17. 1891. 13. Massey, L. M. The crown-canker disease of rose. Phyto- path. 7:408^17. 1917. 14. Smith, E. F., Brown, N. A., and Townsend, C. O. Crown- gall of plants: its cause and remedy. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Plant Indus. Bui. 213: 1-200. 1911. 15. Smith, E. F., and Townsend, C. O. A plant tumor of bacte- rial origin. Science, X. S. 25:671-673. 1907. 16. Townsend, C. O. A bacterial gall of the daisy and its rela- tion to gall formations on other plants. Science N. S. 29: 273. 1909. Explanation of Plati- Plate 1. Rose plants affected with crown-canker. Fig. 1. Stem of an Ophelia plant artificially inoculated with mycelium of fungus I'm 2 Hoosier Beauty plant showing cracking at crown. Fig. A. American Beauty plant showing black water-soaked area at crown. Figs. 1 and 2, natural size; Fig. 3, three-fourths natural size. Plate 2. Fig. 1. Plant affected with crown-gall. N<>t»> the Uurgi formed at the crown of the plant. Fig. 2. Black-spot lesions <>n rose leaf. Natural size. MASS. HORT. SOC, 1918 PLATE 1 Massey — Diseases of Roses > (A m -< I O O (/) m TRANSACTIONS OF THE assatfrasrtis Jjrtiotlteal «§btiet|j FOR THE YEAR 1918 PART II BOSTON PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY NINETF.KN HUNDRED AND MM 111 \ Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 1918. The Transactions of the Society are issued annually in two parts under the direction of the Committee on Lectures and Publications. Communications relating to the objects of the Society, its publi- cations, exhibitions, and membership, may be addressed to William P. Rich, Secretary, Horticultural Hall, No. 300 Massachusetts Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts. Fred A. Wilson Chairman Thomas Allen John K. M. L. Farquhar Committee on Lectures and Publications. 104 CONTENTS Annual Reports for the Year 1918 Report of the Board of Trustees .... Report of the Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions Report of the Committee on Plants and Flowers . Report of the Committee on Fruits Report of the Committee on Vegetables Report of the Committee on Children's Gardens . 109 113 115 121 123 125 Report of the Delegate to the State Board^of Report of the Secretary and Librarian . Report of the Treasurer The Annual Meeting, November 16, 1918 Necrology, 1918 Officers, Committees, and Members, 1918 Agriculture 127 130 133 141 145 149 105 ANNUAL REPORTS FOR THE YEAR 1918. 107 TRANSACTIONS OF THE 1918, PART II. REPORT OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES FOR THE YEAR 1918. The Board of Trustees of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society presents herewith to the members a summary of the busi- ness transacted at its meetings during the year 1918. January 12. Walter Hunnewell was appointed Treasurer of the Society and William P. Rich Secretary, Librarian, and Super- intendent of the Building for the current year. James Wheeler was appointed Superintendent of Exhibitions for the year with a salary of $300. An appropriation of $500, to include the income of the John Lewis Russell Fund, was voted for the lecture course of the year 1919. Concerning the appropriation for prizes and gratuities for the year 1919 it was voted to refer the matter to the Advisory Com- mittee with instruction to refer back to the Board. The suggestion was made that the amount carried on the Treas- urer's books under the heading of furniture and exhibition ware and all other accounts of fixtures and library be referred to the Advisory Committee for such action as may be desirable. The special committee on the award of the George Robert White Medal of Honor for the year 1917, consisting of Messrs. Sargent, Farquhar, and Roland, reported the name of Professor Niels Ebbesen Hansen of Brookings, South Dakota. Mr. Far- 109 110 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICCLTUBAL SOCIETY quhar stated that the award was recommended in recognition of the important service rendered by Professor Hansen in the introduction and hybridization of new varieties of economic plants and fruits suitable for cultivation in the northwestern states. It was voted to accept the report of this committee. The following named persons, recommended by Professor Sargent, were duly elected to Corresponding Membership in the Society : Isaac Bay ley Balfour. Regius Keeper, Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Scotland. I esire Bois. Editor Revue Hoiticole, Paris, France. Leon Chenault, Orleans, France. "William C. Egan, Highland Park, Illinois. Bertrand H. Farr, "Wyomissing, Pennsylvania. Professor Niels Ebbesen Hansen, Brookings, South Dakota. Charles L. Hutchinson, Chicago, Illinois. Mrs. Francis King. Alma. Michigan. J. Horace McFarland, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Doctor George T. Moore, Director Missouri Botanical Garden, Saint Louis, Missouri. Doctor Walter Van Fleet, Bureau of Plant Industry, Washing- ton, D. C. F. Gomer Waterer, Bagshot, Surrey, England. January IS. On call of the President a special meeting of the Board of Trustees was held this day. The President stated that some adverse criticism had been made ntly because of the action of the Society in eliminating the money prizes from the Schedule of Prizes and Exhibitions for the year 19 IS which had culminated in a communication from the Gardeners' and Florists' Club of Boston requesting that a special meeting of the Soeietv be called to consider the desirabilitv of eliminating the money prizes for the year 1918. After a general discussion of the subject it was voted to approve the decision of the Advisory Committee in omitting the money prizes for the year. In regard to the communication from the Gardeners' and Flor- Club it was voted to appoint a committee consisting of Me- REPORT OF BOARD OF TRUSTEES 111 Saltonstall, Endicott, Farquhar, Roland, and James Wheeler to confer with a committee of the Gardeners' and Florists' Club in an effort to harmonize the differences of opinion on the subject of prizes. It was further voted to allow the income of the special prize funds of the Society, which is required to be expended annually, to be included in the Schedule of Prizes for the year 1918. June 27. Communications from the recently elected Corre- sponding Members were read accepting with appreciation the honor conferred upon them. The President presented the report of the Advisory Committee on the Schedule of Prizes and Exhibitions for the year 1919. He stated that the committee recommended the elimination of all flower shows for the year on account of war conditions, the coal situation, and the closing of many greenhouses, and to concentrate the work of the Society in the interest of vegetable growing and increased food production. Mr. Kidder suggested that members and others be invited to send in exhibits of plants and flowers without prizes and that culinary herbs and medicinal plants be included in the Schedule. The Committee recommended the following outline of exhibits and appropriations for the year 1919: For exhibition of the products of children's gardens, $250. For children's gardens within ten miles of the State House, $250. For amateur home vegetable gardens within ten miles of the State House, $250. For exhibition of the products of amateur home vegetable gardens, $250. For a fruit and vegetable exhibition in September, $1000 for vegetables, $500 for fruits, and $300 for outdoor grown flowers. It was voted to approve the general plan as outlined in the report, with the omission of the $300 for outdoor grown flowers, and an appropriation not exceeding $3500 was voted for the 1919 Schedule, to include the income of such special prize funds as may be applicable therefor. 112 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY The special committee on the annual award of the George Robert White Medal of Honor, consisting of Messrs. Sargent, Farquhar, and Roland, presented the name of Doctor Walter Van Fleet of Washington, D. C. The committee stated that the nomination of Doctor Van Fleet was in recognition of his service in horticulture, especially his work in the hybridization of the rose. Among his productions of roses are the American Pillar, Dr. Van Fleet, and Silver Moon. The report of the committee was accepted and it was voted to award the George Robert White Medal of Honor for the year 1918 to Doctor Walter Van Fleet. The President called attention to the amount of $48,000 carried on the Treasurer's books as surplus, the result of the accumu- lation of previous years. Although already safely invested and practically principal he said it should not longer be carried as surplus and he recommended that all of this amount, with the exception of $2500, be carried to capital account. The Treasurer, Mr. Hunnewell, replied that he could not agree with the President in this application of the surplus income account. On motion of Professor Sargent it was voted to refer the matter with power to the Finance Committee, with the addition of Messrs. Dane, Moseley, and the President. In accordance with the provisions of the By-laws of the Society the following amendment to Section IX. Clause (7) was recommended and ordered to be presented for adoption at the next annual meet- ing of the Society in November. Voted. — That Section IX. Clause (7) be amended so that it shall read: (7) They shall arrange for such exhibitions of flowers, plants, fruits, and vegetables in each year as they may deem desirable and shall have the entire charge of all arrangements for conducting the same. They may also adopt such other methods for promoting the interest in horticulture as they may deem advisable. On the recommendation of the Advisory Committee an appro- priation not exceeding $1000 was voted for home garden in- struction during the current year and for the employment of a professional gardener from May to August inclusive. William P. Rich, Secretary. REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON PRIZES AND EXHIBITIONS FOR THE YEAR 1918. By James Wheeler, Chairman. The exhibitions of the past year have not been as large as usual nor as well attended, owing to war conditions, the scarcity of labor, and the elimination of money prizes; and consequently did not come up to our hopes and expectations. At the Spring Show in March no prizes were offered but the exhibition proved a great success. The growers and exhibitors responded handsomely as the receipts were for the benefit of the American Red Cross. Prizes were offered at the Sweet Pea Show for amateurs and also at the Gladiolus Show resulting in a good competition at both shows. All the other shows proved beyond doubt that we cannot keep up the high standard of our exhibitions without offering prizes. The Board of Trustees has made an appropriation of $3500 for the year 1919 and the Schedule of Prizes has been made up by your committee and approved by the Trustees. James Wheeler Robert Cameron William N. Craig Duncan Finlayson T. D. Hatfield Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions. 113 REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS FOR THE YEAR 1918. By William Anderson, Chairman. The shows of the Society the past year with the exception of the March Exhibition were below the average. The high cost of labor and general war conditions and the fact that the Society offered practically no inducements to growers were responsible for this condition. On January 30 the Carnation Exhibition was held in conjunction with the Annual Meeting of the American Carnation Society. There were no carnations exhibited under the schedule of the Horti- cultural Society. Dailledouze Brothers, New York, was awarded a Certificate of Merit for rose Ophelia Supreme, Carl Hagen- burger, West Mentor, Ohio, received a Silver Medal for Solan inn Capsicastrum Orange Queen and a Certificate of Merit for Solatium Capsicastrum Cleveland, a dwarf, red-fruited variety. Spring Exhibition. The Spring Exhibition which opened March 13 was a success in every way. For harmony of arrangement and quality of material shown it equaled any show held in Boston in recent years. First in importance was the exhibit of acacias from Thomas Roland which included twenty-eight species and filled the Lecture Hall. A Gold Medal was awarded Mr. Roland for his magnificent display. Ernest B. Dane had a well arranged group of orchids. It contained many well-grown and valuable plants among which were Odontioda Bradshawiae, Odontoglossinn Queen Alexandra. Cypripediums Minos Youngii and Bingleyense, Cattleyaa Louis Sander and Kheims, and sonic fine Laeli<>-( at tleva hybrids. A Gold Medal was awarded Mr. Dane for hi- exhibit. Albert C. Burrage of Prides Crossing was also awarded a Gold ii.-. 116 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY Medal for a splendid group of orchids which contained many choice specimens; among them were Brasso-Cattleya Heatonensis, Cattleyas Trianae A. C. Burrage, Snowflake, and Luminosa, Odontoglossum amabile, Cypripedium Archie Neil, and Oncidium Ca vendishianum . Silver Medals were awarded to the following named exhibitors of artistic groups of foliage and flowering plants: Mrs. C. G. Weld (Wm. C. Rust, gardener) who had the most artistically arranged group; Edwin S. Webster (Peter Arnott, gardener); Miss Cor- nelia Warren (Henry Stewart, gardener); Weld Garden (Duncan Finlayson, gardener) ; Edward A. Clark (W. H. Golby, gardener) ; and the W. W. Edgar Company. Prof. C. S. Sargent (Charles Sander, gardener) exhibited a splendid group of Clivia miniata which included some very fine varieties raised from seed by Mr. Sander. A Silver Medal was awarded Mr. Sander. The same exhibitor also put up a collection of small-flowered azaleas, hybrids between Azalea Hinodigeri and A. romantiaca. A. W. Preston (John L. Smith, gardener) and H. T. Hayward (James Warr, gardener) were the principal exhibitors of bulbous plants. Mr. Preston had the best group and Mr. Hayward was awarded numerous First Prizes for his exhibits of tulips and narcissi, and for an exhibit of splendidly-grown mignonette in pots he was awarded a Cultural Certificate. F. W. Fletcher was awarded a Cultural Certificate for his newest hybrids in colored freesias, George Page a Cultural Certificate for a fine exhibit of spring-flowering plants, and Peter Arnott the same for cyclamens. There were also fine cyclamens from Mrs. J. L. Gardner and Mrs. Lester Leland, the latter being awarded a Silver Medal for her exhibit. R. & J. Farquhar & Co. arranged a Liberty Garden in the Main Hall which was much admired, masses of the Lilium regale, Azalea Kaempferi, and other flowering plants being effectively used. The Boston retail florists were well represented with baskets, vases, and other tasteful arrangements of flowers and plants. Silver Medals were awarded the following firms : Penn the Florist, Boston Cut Flower Co., Henry R. Comley, Caplan the Florist, Zinn the Florist, and John J. O'Brien. There were some beauti- REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS 117 ful exhibits of carnations, notably that of S. J. Goddard. About thirty varieties of camellias were exhibited by Mrs. Bayard Thayer, Mrs. Sarah C. Sears, and W. R. Coe, the best of which were the varieties Mrs. F. Sander, Lady Roberts, Eileen, Sylva, and Frau Bertha Seidel. R. & J. Farquhar & Co. was awarded Honorable Mention for a new hardy azalea, the result of a cross between Azalea Kaempferi and A. ledifolia. May Exhibition. On May 18 Calceolaria Stewartii, pelargoniums, lilacs, and tulips were on exhibition. P. J. Daly, gardener to L. D. Towle, received a First Class Certificate for Laelio-Cattleya Dominiana langleyensis. Peony and Rose Exhibition. The annual exhibition of peonies and roses was held June 15 and 16 and was well up to the usual high standard. T. C. Thur- low's Sons were the largest exhibitors, filling nearly half of the Main Hall. They were awarded the American Peony Society's Medal for the largest and best collection. They were also the principal prize winners in the other large classes. Silver Medals were awarded J. K. Alexander for a fine display of flowers, T. C. Thurlow's Sons for their extensive display, and George N. Smith for his fine exhibit of specimen blooms. R. & J. Farquhar & Co. was awarded a Silver Medal for a display of peonies and roses. This firm also exhibited the new, large, pure white double peony Mrs. Bayard Thayer, which won First Prize for the best bloom in the show and in addition a Certificate of Merit. Some of the finest varieties shown were Venus, M. Dupont, Mr. Manning, Germaine Bigot, M. Jules Dessert, Mine. Boulanger, James Kelway, Frances Wiflard, Archie Brand, Sarah Bernhardt, and Avalanche. John B. Wills, Wm. C. Winter, and A. L, Stephen were the principal exhibitors of roses. Some of the besl varieties were George Arends, Jonkheer, J. L. Mock, Edward M.iwley, Mme. Mehmi Soupert, Mrs. David McKee, Florence Pemberton, Mine. Caroline Testout, George Dickson, Dean Hole, and Liberty. I— — ^^v 118 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY Mrs. C. G. Weld (Wm. C. Rust, gardener) received a Silver Medal for a display of Hybrid Perpetual roses; Thomas N. Cook, a First Class Certificate for a new rambler Ghislaine de Feligonde; Miss Cornelia Warren (Henry Stewart, gardener) a Silver Medal for a well-flowered group of Oncidium flexuosum; A. W. Preston (John L. Smith, gardener) a Silver Medal for the splendid, pure white Cattleya Charm, a cross between C. Gaskelliana alba and C. Mossiae Wageneri. The same exhibitor received a similar award for the new Laelio-Cattleya Rheims alba rubra, a cross between Laelia purpurata and Cattleya exoniensis. The Boston Cut Flower Co., Houghton-Gorney Co., and Henry R. Comley exhibited handsome vases and baskets of cut flowers. Sweet Pea Exhibition. The Sweet Pea Show was held July 6. There was practically no competition. W. G. Taylor of Newport, R. I., had some good blooms of the following: Constance Hinton, King Edward, Hercu- les, Margaret Atlee, A. F. Felton, King Marvel, M. J. Dameron, and Rosabelle. The Blue Hill Nurseries was awarded a First Class Certificate for a pure white Delphinium Belladonna. Gladiolus Exhibition. The Gladiolus Show, held August 10 and 11, was not large but the quality of the flowers was very fine. Thomas Cogger was awarded a Silver Medal for a fine vase of Miss Helen Franklin, a new ruffled variety, clear white, with violet stripes on the lower petals. S. E. Spencer was awarded a Silver Medal for a display of beautiful varieties. Bronze Medals were awarded Jelle Roos and C. W. Brown for displays of gladioli and Honorable Mention to George N. Smith for herbaceous phlox. Some fine seedlings of gladioli were shown, the best of which was a very large Scarlet from H. E. Meader. Prominent among the varieties shown were Panama, Baron Hulot, Goliath, Ida Van, Schwaben, Byron L. Smith, America, Ophir, Purple Glory, Mrs. Dr. Norton, Nymph, Golden Measure, Peace, Mrs. Francis King, Red Amaryllis, and REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS 119 Mrs. G. W. Moulton. There was an extensive display of the Lily White, said to be a good forcing variety. August 31 Albert C. Burrage of Beverly Farms (Douglas Eccles- ton, gardener) exhibited two rare orchids. They were Vanda luzonica, the first ever shown in the hall, and Cattleya Fahia. Each was awarded a Silver Medal. Dahlia Exhibition. The Dahlia Exhibition was held September 14 and 15.. Although the season was very favorable for dahlias the show was disappoint- ing. The largest exhibitor was J. K. Alexander of East Bridge- water. The Fottler Fiske Rawson Co. exhibited dahlias and gladioli; the Ames Plow Co. also had a display of dahlias; the Boston Cut Flower Co. was first for the largest and best display, well arranged in vases and baskets, and W. D. Hathaway, second; A. M. Hayden of Brockton was first for twelve Decorative dahlias; G. L. Stillman of Westerly, R. I., first for Peony Flowered. For the best seedling J. E. Jones was first with President Wilson, a large, well-shaped flower of the Decorative type, rose-crimson in color, with white stripes on the end of the petals. Among the best varieties shown were the Decorative: Pink Lady, Glory of New Haven, Dr. Tevis, Mrs. Addison Pratt, Bradford, Cecil, and C. W. Hayden; Peony Flowered: Muncie D. Foster, W. G. Brown, General Cadorna, Lady Gay, and Dixie. Autumn Exhibition. At the Autumn Exhibition, November (i and 7, a Certificate of Merit was awarded Miss F. P. Mason for chrysanthemum Monadnock, a fine yellow Anemone, and NashawtUC, a large yellow Japanese. F. Dorner & Sons Co. was awarded u Silver Medal for carnation Endurance, a fine light pink, and Honorable Mention for carnation Xo. 1<»7. Albert C. Burrage was awarded a Silver Medal for a tastefully arranged group of orchids and a similar award was given to Joseph A. Manda for a display of Cypripedium insigne Scmderw Edwin 120 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY S. Webster exhibited a new winter-flowering begonia, the Exquisite, and received a Silver Medal. He won a similar award for a table of begonias which included specimens of Optima, Moonbeam, Elatior, Fireflame, and Rosalind. William Anderson Arthur H. Fewkes S. J. Goddard Donald McKenzie William Sim Committee on Plants and Flowers. REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FRUITS FOR THE YEAR 1918. By Edward B. Wilder, Chairman. Your committee is obliged to report a very disappointing year's work. The displays of fruit have been meager, owing largely to the almost complete elimination of money prizes from the Schedule. The growers of fruit faced a hard year under war conditions, shortage of labor, and poor transportation, and needed an added encouragement and inspiration to help them to grow and exhibit the best fruit possible. With the Food Administration urging the use of more fruit this Society should have been the pioneer in launching out into new fields of endeavor and reaching forth to the future. The number of prizes awarded this year amount to 52, nine of which are money prizes as compared with 294 money prizes awarded for fruit in 1917. At the Rose, Peony, and Strawberry Exhibition, June 15-16, a Silver Medal was awarded Louis Graton of Whitman for the best new strawberry of merit not yet introduced. He has named this berry "Louella" and speaks of it as follows: " The Louella has now fruited three consecutive seasons. It was found in a row of Brandywines, so I am sure of one of its parents. It begins fruiting two or three days later than the Brandywine, holds its size throughout the season, and also has its hull bright and green to the last picking. It is a little darker than its parent and is a rich red clear through. The blossoms are perfect and the berry is regular in form, very uniform in size, and excellent in flavor." Great credit is due Hillcrest Farm, Weston, Miss Marian U. Case, proprietor, for her many exhibits of fruit during the year. At the Sweet Pea Exhibition, July 6-7, she took six First Prizes and one Second Prize, five of these being for raspberries, the largest 121 122 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY display that has been seen in the Hall for years. Honorable Mention was also awarded her at the Gladiolus and Phlox Exhi- bition, August 10-11, for the Japanese wineberry. A new raspberry called "La France" was displayed at the Dahlia, Fruit, and Vegetable Exhibition, September 14-15, by the John Scheepers Co., of New York. It seems to be a promising late variety, a strong grower, and very productive. Mrs. R. Goodnough of West Roxbury exhibited a beautiful basket of Eaton grapes at the Autumn Exhibition, November 6-10, for which she received Honorable Mention. Edward B. Wilder William N. Craig Isaac H. Locke James Methven Committee on Fruits. REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES FOR THE YEAR 1918. By John L. Smith, Chairman. The results of the vegetable exhibitions for the year 1918 have been less satisfactory than in former years. This was due largely to the scarcity of labor caused by conditions resulting from the war. Quantity of production has been emphasized rather than quality because the needs of the country have been so pressing. It is only when the people are free from stress that they devote their time to the improvement of the quality of an article. At such times there is ample labor available, plenty of time, and the people are psychologically in a condition to give their attention to the production of goods from the standpoint of excellence. During the past year, however, the result sought for was an in- crease in production, and we are sure this has been accom- plished. Efforts have been made to stimulate the people to raise vegetables sufficient for their own needs, and much work of a very encouraging nature has been done in this direction. If persons who have become interested during the past year will persevere, a little later they will see their efforts rewarded, and will then desire to give more attention to improving the quality of their products. Exhibitions during the past year have been poorly attended, and for reasons indicated above the competition has been poor. The attention of the exhibitors was absorbed in other matters. They were interested in winning the war and had little time for a l lending exhibitions of any kind. During the year, demonstrations were given at Horticultural Hall by experts in the matter of planting and growing vegetables. There was much interest in this new plan. It gave a great deal of expert knowledge to those who were anxious to learn and desir- ous of putting their knowledge into practice. This is a plan that we recommend and sincerely hope will be continued. —r 124 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY The war is now over, but we should not cease our efforts to increase productivity of the soil. Education is necessary and should be continued. We realize that, in a crisis similar to the one through which the world has just passed, the raising of food is a great essential. While there may be relaxation upon the part of many, it is to be hoped that interest in agriculture will be kept active so that the Nation will always have in reserve, so to speak, an army of men, and women, if necessary, who can intelligently plant and grow crops. In closing, we desire to call your attention to the many young men who left their employment in greenhouses, gardens, and farms to enter the war. These young men are now returning and should be received back by their former employers. This is not only a duty that is owed these young men because of the sacrifices they have made, but, likewise, one that we owe the Nation as a whole. It is a form of patriotic service, and will come back to us many fold in future years. John L. Smith Committee Edward Parker Wm. C. Rust on Vegetables. REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON CHILDREN'S GARDENS. By Henry Saxton Adams, Chairman. The exhibition of the products of the children's gardens was held at Horticultural Hall on Saturday and Sunday, August 31 and September 1, 1918, and filled all three halls. There was not quite as much material brought in as in 1917, due probably to the fact that much of the product raised in the gardens was used as food or for canning and drying purposes. Our prizes were also reduced which undoubtedly prevented a number, outside gardens particularly, being represented. We noted a decrease in the number of exhibits of flowers, showing that children's gardens were given up more than ever to the pro- duction of vegetables for food. The exhibits were fully up to the standard of the last few exhibitions and in some cases better than ever. There is no question but that the quality of the exhibits of the children in many cases equals those of adults at the regular shows. There were entries in all of the classes in which prizes were offered except wild flowers, and here again we seemed to feel the effects of war conditions. In some of the exhibits of vege- tables there was an unusually large number of exhibits; for instance, there were one hundred entries of six specimens of tomatoes for which ten prizes were offered and awarded; there were sixty-five entries of potatoes; fifty-eight of carrots; forty-four of beets; forty-two of green string beans; and thirty-six of green sweet corn. In the class of any variety of vegetable not mentioned in the list we had eighty-two exhibits with only six prizes offered. Among the interesting garden exhibits was one from the War Garden on Boston Common which we think is rather unusual and particularly noteworthy as an exhibition of vegetables grown by children on Boston Common. The appropriation tor prizes was entirely used and it gives us pleasure to announce that for the season of 1919, with the cooperation of the State Department of 125 126 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY Agriculture, we will have a larger appropriation and consequently will be able to offer better prizes in the classes where the small prize did not attract exhibitors. We have also made other changes in our schedule which we feel sure will increase the interest among the children and improve the exhibition. There were one hundred and eighty prizes offered at this exhi- bition of which one hundred and seventy-eight were awarded ranging from five dollars to twenty-five cents. Henry Saxton Adams Dr. Harris Kennedy Mrs. W. Rodman Peabody Miss Margaret A. Rand James Wheeler Committee > on Children's Gardens. N REPORT OF THE DELEGATE TO THE STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR 1918. By Samuel J. Goddard, Delegate. The passage of the Anti-Aid Amendment to the Massachusetts Constitution severed the relations which had existed for many years between the Board and this Society. This amendment provided that no State funds could be given to any private cor- poration, so that the State bounty received in August, 1918, was the last bounty of this sort that the Horticultural Society will receive. As membership on the Board was dependent on receiving bounty, it was evident that some reorganization of the Board was necessary. The Legislature of 1918 therefore created a new State Department of Agriculture, consisting of one member from each county, to be appointed by the Governor. This Department came into existence on the first of September, and the term of office of your delegate on the Board expired on that date. One of the most important pieces of work with which the Board has had to deal during the last year and one which closely affects horticultural interests, especially the market gardener, is the European Corn Borer. This pest is a new importation, which appeared in Eastern Massachusetts and is now prevalent in thirty towns in the immediate vicinity of Boston. It attacks not only corn, but garden vegetables, flowers and weeds, and is very destruc- tive. The leading entomologists say that if allowed to get out of control it will be the worst insect pest that has ever come to this country. Strenuous efforts are being made by the State Board and its successor, the State Department, to stamp out this pest, and in this work it is cooperating with the Bureau of Plant Industry of the United States Department of Agriculture. Afl the insect hibernates in weeds, corn stalks and various kinds of garden refuse, the most practical way to attack it is to entirely clean up gardens in the fall and burn the refuse, including partic- ularly all corn stalks and weeds. The Department is making an t27 128 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY effort to have every garden in the infested area cleaned up, and of course this is a tremendous task and probably cannot all be done this winter. Representations are being made to the Federal Con- gress for a large appropriation to work with in Massachusetts for next year, as it is felt that this pest must be stamped out here and now. If it is once allowed to get away and into the great corn belt it will be useless to attempt to eradicate it. This work is being carried on under the direct supervision of the State Nursery Inspector. During the past year Dr. Burton N. Gates, formerly State Apiary Inspector, has resigned and gone to Canada as provincial apiarist for the Province of Ontario. Dr. Gates' work among the beekeepers in this State is well known, and his work has been very beneficial to the horticultural interests. So far his place has not been filled. The new Department of Agriculture has elected Wilfrid Wheeler of Concord as Commissioner of Agriculture for a term of three years. Mr. Wheeler was for five years Secretary of the old State Board of Agriculture, and before that was delegate from the Massachusetts Horticultural Society to the Board. During the year three conferences were held of representatives from all the New England States to draft a uniform apple grading law for the six states. Five of these states now have such laws, Rhode Island being the only one which has not. The laws, how- ever, differ in important particulars, and as Boston is the principal market for the six states, it has been felt that it would be of great advantage to the fruit growing interests if the laws could be the same. An interstate committee, of which Mr. Wilfrid Wheeler was chairman, has finally worked out a law which has met with the approval of all the fruit growing bodies of these states, and this will be introduced at the coming session of the Legislature. The State Board of Agriculture carried on an important emer- gency piece of work during the past year, in the operation of State farm machinery. An appropriation of $100,000 was made, to be used in the purchase of farm machinery in order to increase food production. This money was used in the purchase of thirty-six tractors, twelve binders, ten threshing machines, two bean threshers and a hay baler. The machinery was distributed in parts of the REPORT OF DELEGATE TO STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 129 State where the need for it seemed to be most pressing, and was operated by the State, the cost of the work in each case being charged to the farmer. In addition to the large increased acreage which was put under cultivation, the experiment was a very valu- able one as showing the place which the farm tractor has in Massa- chusetts. Five types of tractors were tried out, and the Depart- ment has reached very definite conclusions as to just what type of a farm the tractor will prove useful on. It is expected that now that the machinery has been purchased it will be operated another year, as the local demand for grain crops will probably be undi- minished. The Public Winter Meeting of the Board was held in Worcester in January, 1918, and the Summer Field Meeting was held at Hathorne at the Essex County Agricultural School in August. The new Department will hold its First Annual Public Winter Meeting at Horticultural Hall in February, 1919. REPORT OF THE SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN FOR THE YEAR 1918. The year 1918 has brought a break in the customary activities of the Society, particularly in its exhibitions. War conditions, the shortage of coal and consequent closing of many private green- houses, have operated so unfavorably that with one or two excep- tions the exhibitions have fallen far below the usual high standard of the Society. The elimination of money prizes from the Schedule has also had a discouraging effect upon the exhibitors. These conditions, however, have been offset in large measure by the adoption of other methods for maintaining the usefulness of the Society. The importance of an increased food production throughout the country was recognized early in the year and a plan was adopted by the Trustees to assist in this desirable work. It took the form of a course of practical instruction in vegetable gardening. A plot of earth was brought in to one of the halls and a professional gardener was engaged from May to August, inclusive, to give daily instruction in the best methods of planting seed, transplant- ing, fertilizing, control of insect pests, and other necessary informa- tion for successful vegetable growing. Special public meetings were held also on two evenings during the week when a number of expert gardeners, interested in the plan, contributed their services and their experience by presenting the best practical advice for obtaining results in the vegetable garden. This course of instruction was freely offered to the public and the results were highly satisfactory and placed the Society in the line of usefulness to the Government in the trying days of the war. The success of this work suggests also the desirability of the Society engaging in further efforts in this direction, especially in the line of amateur home vegetable gardening. In addition to this endeavor on the part of the Society to increase its usefulness the halls of its building were freely placed at the 130 REPORT OF SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN 131 disposal of the American Red Cross and other organizations for war relief work. The Spring Exhibition in March was a notable success horticul- turally as well as financially. The entire net proceeds of this show, amounting to $4500, were given to the Red Cross organ- ization, which was in addition to several thousand dollars more taken in at the tea garden entertainment carried on by the ladies in connection with the flower show. This exhibition and its object created a most favorable impression upon the public generally as a contribution which horticulture is making to relieve the disastrous conditions which necessarily follow as a result of the war. The ever-recurring question of money prizes was brought to the front this year, resulting in a call by thirty-one members of the Society for a special meeting to protest the action of the Trustees in the matter. Both sides of the question were presented by its advocates and the action of the Trustees in eliminating money prizes for the year was approved by a large majority of the mem- bers present at the meeting. Mention should be made of the annual exhibitions of the Ameri- can Carnation Society in January and the American Dahlia Society in September which were held in connection with the scheduled exhibitions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. The Carnation Society staged a magnificent display of carnations filling the large hall of the Society's building. The Dahlia Society put up its usual fine exhibit, containing numerous new varieties of this ever popular flower. The exhibit of vegetables and canned products made at the September show by the Suffolk County Food Administration attracted enthusiastic interest. These three special exhibits helped greatly to relieve the lack of interest in the other scheduled exhibitions.- The tenth award of the George Robert White Medal of Honor was made this year. The complete list of the recipients of this Medal is appended for permanent record: 1909. Professor ( lharles Sprague Sargent, Director of the Arnold Arboretum. 132 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 1910. Jackson Thornton Dawson, Superintendent of the Arnold Arboretum. 1911. Victor Lemoine, Horticulturist, Nancy, France. 1912. Michael H. Walsh, Rose Grower, Woods Hole, Mass. 1913. Park Commission of the City of Rochester, N. Y. 1914. Sir Harry James Veitch, Horticulturist, London, England. 1915. Ernest Henry Wilson, Horticultural Explorer in China. 1916. William Robinson, Horticultural Author, England. 1917. Niels Ebbesen Hansen, for Introduction of new economic plants, Brookings, South Dakota. 1918. Doctor Walter Van Fleet, for Advance in hybridization of garden plants, Washington, D. C. The publications of the Society for the year have been as follows : February 15. Schedule of Exhibitions for the year 1918, 44 pages. May 11. Transactions, 1917, Part 2, pp. 111-212 and one plate. July 27. Transactions, 1918, Part 1, pp. 1-101 and three plates. The Library. Part 1 of the new library catalogue, containing the alphabetical list of authors and titles, has been completed and a limited number of copies will be issued shortly. It has been deemed best to sus- pend temporarily the printing of Part 2, containing the classified arrangement of the books, the material for which has been pre- pared. It is intended later to issue the two parts in one volume. The collection of horticultural trade catalogues has been increased by 160 additions, making the total number to this date 10,825. W t illiam P. Rich, Secretary and Librarian. REPORT OF THE TREASURER FOR THE YEAR 1918. Income. Income from Interest on Investments and Bank Interest $12,905 42 " Rents 2,608 69 " Exhibitions 398 90 • " " State Bounty 1,000 00 " " Membership Fees 452 00 " Donations 308 90 * " Sale of Lots in Mt. Auburn Cemetery 1,990 38 $19,664 29 Expense. Operating Expense $14,108 93 Viz: Salaries $4,413 92 Insurance 510 25 Heating 2,485 21 Labor 2,693 05 Incidentals 1,373 41 Stationery and Printing . . 1,114 78 Lighting 692 39 Library Appropriation . . . 289 90 Postage $152, Repairs $384.02 536 02 Prizes 420 50 Viz: Plants and Flowers .... 211 00 Children's Gardens .... 209 50 Expenditures by Committees . 1,510 02 Viz : On Medals 501 74 Lectures and Publications . . 235 00 Prizes 302 28 209 00 Fruits $134, Vegetables $128 . 262 00 Expense paid from Funds .... 917 75 Geo. Robert White Medal Fund 493 81 John C. Chaffin Fund . . . 3 00 ■ John Lewis Russell Fund . . 45 00 Samuel Appleton Fund . . . 38 00 Marshall P. Wilder Fund . . 28 00 John S. Farlow Fund . . . 27 35 J. D. W. French Fund . . . 282 09 • Home Garden Instruction .... 000 00 117,557 20 Bal. of Income from Fonda, unexpended 1,684 I Excess of Income over Expenditure ! 28 119,664 29 134 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY Changes in Capital Account During Year ended Dec. 31, 1918. Receipts. 50 t c of Receipts from Mt. Auburn Cemetery . . $1,990 38 $4,000 United Fruit 4% Notes Paid 4,000 00 General Electric "Rights" 960 02 Life Membership Fees 350 00 Chicago & West Michigan Script 53 75 $7,354 15 Expended on account of Library Catalogue . . 500 00 for $5000 United States Steel Bonds . 5,068 06 Capital Increase 1.786 09 $7,354 15 Assets. Real Estate $498,564 63 Furniture and Exhibition Ware 7,982 61 Library 46,580 47 $2,000 Kansas, Clinton & Springfield 5 C ~ C Bds. 1925 1,980 00 $10,000 Lake Shore & Mich. Southern R. R. 3|% Bds. 1997 10,000 00 $21,000 City of Newton 4% Bds. 1928 .... 21,000 00 $50,000 Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe 4% Bds. 1995 44,693 25 $50,000 C. B. & Q, Neb. 4% Bds. 1927 .... 50,000 00 $11,300 Pere Marquette R. R. 5% Bds. . . . 9,933 75 $25,000 Kan. City Ft, Scott & Memphis 6% Bds. 1928 25,000 00 $50,000 C. B. & Q., IU. Div. Z\% Bds. 1949 . . 50,000 00 $8,000 Boston & Maine R. R. \\% Bds. 1944 . . 8,000 00 $4,000 Am. Tel. & Tel. Co. Convert. 4% Bds. 1936 4,000 00 $4,000 Interborough Rapid Transit 5% Bds. 1966 3,920 00 $12,000 Pacific Telephone Co., 5% Bds. 1937 . . 11,670 00 270 Shares General Electric Co 11,949 88 Hayes & Loring 2,308 66 $12,000 United States Liberty Bonds .... 12,000 00 $5,000 United States Steel 5% Bds 5,068 06 Treasurer's Cash $5,955.65 Bursar's Cash $342.43 6,298 OS $830,949 39 Liabilitie - Samuel Appleton Fund $1,002 00 John A. Lowell " 1,040 00 Theodore Lyman " 11,440 00 Josiah Bradlee " 1,040 00 Benj. V. French " 520 00 H. H. Hunnewell " 4,160 00 REPORT OF THE TREASURER 135* W. J. Walker Fund 2,448 59 Levi Whitcomb u 520 00 Benjamin B. Davis " 520 00 Marshall P. Wilder " 1,012 00 John Lewis Russell ■ 1,030 00 Francis Brown Hayes " 10,400 00 Henry A. Gane ■ 1,264 00 John S. Farlow u 2,655 91 J. D. W. French " 5,241 42' Benjamin H. Pierce " 832 00 John C. Chaffin " 1,265 89" Benjamin V. French " 3,120 00 John Allen French " 5,200 0O George Robert White " 7,517 91 John S. Farlow " 3,016 42 Helen Collamore " 5,000 00 Library Catalogue 170 00 $70,416 14 Capital & Reserve 760,533 25 $830,949 39 Membership. Life Members, December 31, 1917 797 Added in 1918 14 811 Deceased 21 790 Annual Members December 31, 1917 191 Added in 1918 10 201 Deceased 2 . . Resigned 1 . . Dropped for non-payment of dues 3 . . 6 195 Membership, December 31, 1918 985 Income from Membership. 14 New Life Members at $30 $420 00 10 New Annual Members at $10 100 00 Assessments for 1918 282 00 $802 00 136 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY Balanxe Sheet — December 31, 1918. Assets. Cash; Treasurer 85,955 65 Bursar 342 43 $6,298 08 Investments 269,214 94 Property. Massachusetts and Huntington Avenues . . . 498,564 63 Furniture and Exhibition Ware 7,982 61 Library Equipment 46,580 47 $828,640 73 Fuxds and Capital. Subscriptions for Library Catalogue .... S670 00 Less Payments 500 00 170 00 Life Membership Fees 4,950 00 Mount Auburn Cemetery Fund ...... 7,137 68 Sundry Funds 65,246 14 Unrestricted Fund 5,000 00 Bequest of F. B. Hayes 247,489 27 Less Guardian Account $82,496 43 ... . Trustee Account 2,308 66 ... . 84,805 09 162,684 18 Capital Account 564,524 70 Less loss on bonds 2 50 564,522 20 809,710 20 Accumulated Reserve 18,930 53 $828,640 73 Walter Hunnewell, Treasurer. REPORT OF THE TREASURER 137 Auditor's Certificate. 40 State Street, Boston, March 5, 1919. To the Finance Committee of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Gentlemen: As requested by you I have made a thorough audit of the books and general accounting affairs of the Massachusetts Horticultural So- ciety for the year which ended with the thirty-first day of December, 1918, and herewith submit to you my report of the same. Report. I reviewed and checked all additions, entries and postings in the books of the Society which dealt with the income and outgo of moneys; examined the checks and approved vouchers representing disbursements, which were in all instances adequate to sustain the charges of moneys expended; saw that all income was deposited in banks to the credit of the Society and found the amount of cash required by the cash book upon the first day of January, 1919, to have been on hand.^ I examined the securities of the Society and they were in all details in accordance with the requirements of the records. All postings from the journal and cash books were traced into the ledger and I certify that the balance sheet of the 31st day of December, 1918, is a correct abstract and that the Treasurer's statement of the assets and liabilities of the Society upon said date is true to the best of my knowledge and belief. In short, I satisfied myself that the work in connection with the account- ing affairs of the Society is being intelligently and faithfully performed and that the books and papers of the Society are in commendable condition. Yours very respectfully, Andrew Stewart, Certified Public Accountant. THE ANNUAL MEETING, NOVEMBER 16, 1918. ANNUAL MEETING FOR THE YEAR 1918. The Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society for the year 1918 was held at Horticultural Hall, Boston, on Satur- day, November 16, at twelve o'clock noon, with President Salton- stall in the Chair. The Secretary read the call for the meeting and the President appointed Messrs. E. B. Wilder, J. A. Crosby, and W. P. Rich a committee to receive, assort, and count the ballots, and to report the number, and he declared the polls open until three o'clock. The record of the preceding meeting of the Society was read and duly approved. President Saltonstall announced that the Board of Trustees had made an appropriation of $3500 for prizes at the exhibitions of the year 1919, to be expended mainly for the encouragement of fruit and vegetable growing. Under the head of "Any Other Business" William N. Craig said that it had been clearly proven by the experience of the present year that the elimination of money prizes from the Schedule had caused a decided lack of interest in the exhibitions and that they had not been creditable to the Society. He thought the proposed exclusion of flower shows from the Schedule of 1919 was unfortu- nate and not for the best interest of the Society. While not making any formal motion he wished to suggest that the Trustees consider the matter of an appropriation for exhibits of flowers during the coming year. The President answered that the suggestion of Mr. Craig would be presented at the next meeting of the Board of Trustees. He then called Vice President Kidder to the Chair and declared a recess until three o'clock. At three o'clock Mr. Kidder declared the polls closed and the ballot committee reported through Mr. Wilder the result of the voting as follows: Whole number of ballots cast 27. For President, William C. Endicott had 26. 141 142 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY For Vice President (for two years), Nathaniel T. Kidder had 25. For Trustees (for three years), George E. Barnard had 24; Arthur F. Estabrook, 26; John K M. L. Farquhar, 22; Richard M. Saltonstall, 22. For Nominating Committee, William Anderson, 26; Peter Fisher, 25; Robert T. Jackson, 23; Edwin S. Webster, 25; Ernest H. Wilson, 23. For Amendment to Section IX. of the By-laws the ballots recorded Yes 10, No 17. Vice President Kidder announced that the following list of officers of the Society for the year 1919 had been duly elected : President William C. Endicott Vice President Nathaniel T. Kidder (for two years) Trustees George E. Barnard (for three years) Arthur F. Estabrook John K. M. L. Farquhar Richard M. Saltonstall Nominating Committee William Anderson Peter Fisher Robert T. Jackson Edwin S. Webster Ernest H. Wilson He further announced that the proposed amendment to Section IX. of the By-laws had failed to receive the two-thirds vote required and was therefore not adopted. The meeting was then dissolved. William P. Rich, Secretary. NECROLOGY, 1918. 143 NECROLOGY, 1918. Admitted Died 1876 Mrs. Nancy Wyman Cutter Holt January 13 1881 George W. Fowle January 16 1880 Albert M. Davenport February 4 1878 Joseph S. Chase February 16 1889 Benjamin Marston Watson February 20 1914 Alfred Bowditch February 22 1914 Miss Fanny Brooks February 22 1914 George von L. Meyer March 9 1900 Andrew Robeson Sargent March 19 1868 George Golding Kennedy March 31 1914 Mrs. Frederick Ayer April 3 1893 Mrs. Nancy Jewett Bigelow April 15 1869 Joseph Tailby April 25 1910 David Rankin Craig May 16 1897 Ernest W. Bowditch May 22 1904 George Barker June 12 1892 Abraham Shuman June 26 1894 Jason S. Bailey July 31 1887 Christopher Minot Weld August 27 1896 William F. Dreer September 8 1905 Frank E. Peabody September 28 1899 D. Webster King October LM 1913 A. A. Marshall November 17 145 OFFICERS, COMMITTEES, AND MEMBERS, 1918. 147 assarjntsttts jnrtktrltural ^atuty. OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES FOR 1918. President. RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL, of Newton. Vice-Presidents . NATHANIEL T. KIDDER, of Milton. CHARLES S. SARGENT, of Brookline. Treasurer. WALTER HUNNEWELL, of Boston. Secretary. WILLIAM P. RICH, of Chelsea.* Trustees. THOMAS ALLEN, of Boston. GEORGE E. BARNARD, of Ipswich. ERNEST B. DANE, of Brookline. WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT. of Boston. ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, of Boston. JOHN K. M. L. FARQUHAR, of Boston. WALTER HUNNEWKI.I.. of Boston. CHARLES W. MOSELEY, of Newburyport. ANDREW W. PRESTON, of Boston. THOMAS ROLAND, of Nahant. EDWIN S. WEBSTER, of Boston. STEPHEN M. WELD, of Warkham. Delegate to the State Board of Agriculture. 9 SAMUEL J. GODDARD. of Framinoham. Nominating Committee. JOHN S. AMES, Boston ROBERT CAMERON, Cambridge. THOMAS ROLAND. Nahant. EDWIN B. WEBSTER, Boston. ERNEST H WILSON Boeroir. ♦Communications to the Srrrrtary. <>n the business of the Society, should be addressed to him at Horticultural Hall. Boston 150 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY COMMITTEES FOE 1918 Finance Committee WALTER HUNXEWELL, Chairman ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK STEPHEN M. WELD Membership Committee THOMAS ALLEN CHARLES W. MOSELEY GEORGE E. BARNARD THOMAS ROLAND RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL Committee on Prises and Exhibitions JAMES WHEELER, Chairman ROBERT CAMERON DUNCAN FINLAYSON WILLIAM N. CRAIG T. D. HATFIELD Committee on Plants and Flowers WILLIAM ANDERSON, Chairman ARTHUR H. FEWKES DONALD McKENZIE S. J. GODDARD WILLIAM SIM Committee on Fruits EDWARD B. WILDER, Chairman WILLIAM N. CRAIG ISAAC H. LOCKE JAMES METHVEN Committee on Vegetables JOHN L. SMITH, Chairman EDWARD PARKER WILLIAM C. RUST Committee on Gardens RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL, Chairman JOHN 3. AMES WILLIAM NICHOLSON DAVID R. CRAIG CHARLES SANDER CHARLES H. TENNEY Committee on Library CHARLES S. SARGENT, Chairman ERNEST B. DANE NATHANIEL T. KIDDER Committee on Lectures and Publications FRED A. WILSON, Chairman THOMAS ALLEN JOHN K. M. L. FARQUHAR Committee on Children's Gardens HENRY S. ADAMS, Chairman DR. HARRIS KENNEDY MRS. W. RODMAN PEABODY MISS MARGARET A. RAND JAMES WHEELER MEMBERS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 1918. Revised to December 31, 1918. HONORARY MEMBERS. Members and correspondents of the Society and all other persons who may know of deaths, changes of residence, or other circumstances showing that the following lists are inaccurate in any particular, will confer a favor by promptly communicating to the Secretary the needed corrections. 1900 Dr. Henry S. Pritchett, Washington, D. C. 1900 Albert Viger, President of the National Society of Horticulture of France, Paris. 1897 Hon. James Wilson, Ex-Secretary of Agriculture. CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 1901 George Francis Atkinson, Professor of Botany in Cornell Univer- sity, Ithaca, N. Y. 1889 Dr. L. H. Bailey, Ithaca, N. Y. 1918 Isaac Bayley Balfour, M. D., LL. D., F. R. S., Regius Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Scotland. 1898 John Gilbert Baker, F. R. S., F. L. S., Kew, England. 1875 Professor William J. Beal, Amherst, Mass. 1918 Desire Bois, Editor of La Revue Horticole, Paris, France. 1918 Leon Chenault, Orleans, France. 1911 W. J. Bean, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. 1911 John Dunbar, Park Department, Rochester, N. Y. 1887 Sir W. T. Thiselton Dyer, K. C. M. G., F. R. S., "Witcombe," Gloucester, England. 1918 William C. Egan, Highland Park, 111. 1887 H. J. Elwes, F. R. S., Colesborne, Cheltenham, England. 1889 William G. Farlow, M. D., Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 1918 Bertrand H. Farr, Wyomissing, Pa. 1893 B. E. Fernow, University of Toronto, Ontario. 1900 Dr. Beverly T. Galloway, Department of Agriculture, Washing- ton, D. C. 1S77 George Lincoln Goodale, M. D., Cambridge, Mass. 1918 Professor N. E. Hansen, Brookings, So. Dak. 1914 C. S. HARRISON, York, Nebraska. 151 152 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 1911 Professor U. P. Hedrick, New York Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, N. Y. 1907 Augustine Henry, F. L. S., M. R. I. A., Professor of Forestry, Royal College of Science, Dublin, Ireland. 1897 J. W. Hoffmann, Colored State University, Orangeburg, S. C. 1918 Charles L. Hutchinson, Chicago, HI. 1906 Senor Don Salvador Izquierdo, Santiago, Chile. 1918 Mrs. Francis King, Alma, Mich. 1911 Emile Lemoine, Nancy, France. 1918 J. Horace McFarland, Harrisburg, Pa. 1875 T. C. Maxwell, Geneva, N. Y. 1911 J. Ewing Mears, M. D., Philadelphia, Pa. 1911 Wilhelm Miller, Superintendent of Horticulture, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. 1898 Sir Frederick W. Moore, Curator of the Royal Botanic Gardens Glasnevin, Dublin, Ireland. 1918 Dr. George T. Moore, Director of the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Mo. 1887 Sir Daniel Morris, C. M. G., D.Sc, M. A., F. L. S. 1898 Peter N$vik, Secretary of the Norwegian Horticultural Society, Christiania, Norway. 1912 C. Harm an Payne, London, England. 1906 Sir David Prain, C. I. E., C. M. G.,.F. R. S., Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England 1894 Cavaliere Enrico Ragusa, Palermo, Sicily. 1906 Dr. Henry L. Ridley, C. M. G., F. R. S., Kew, England. 1898 Benjamin Lincoln Robinson, Ph.D., Curator of the Gray Her- barium of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 1875 William Robinson, London, England. 1899 William Salway, Superintendent of Spring Grove Cemetery, Cincinnati, O. 1875 Robert W. Starr, WolfviUe, N. S. 1893 Professor William Trelease, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. 1918 Dr. Walter Van Fleet, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Depart- ment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 1882 H. J. Veitch, Chelsea, England. 1912 Professor Hugo de Vries, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Holland. 1918 F. Gomer Waterer, Bagshot, Surrey, England. 1894 William Watson, Curator of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. 1906 Miss E. Willmott, Essex, England. 1911 E. H. Wilson, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 1901 Professor L. Wittmack, Secretary of the Royal Prussian Horti- cultural Society, Berlin, Prussia. LIFE MEMBERS 153 LIFE MEMBERS. 1899 Adams, Mrs Charles Francis, South Lincoln. 1907 Adams, George E., Kingston, R. I. 1897 Adams, Henry Saxton, Jamaica Plain. 1899 Agassiz, Mrs. George R., Yar- mouth Port. 1894 Allen, Hon. Charles H., Lowell. 1916 Allen, Edward Ellis, Water- town. 1905 Allen, Mrs. Sarah R., Wilming- ton. 1898 Allen, Thomas, Boston. 1899 Ames, F. Lothrop, North Easton. 1914 Ames, Mrs. F. L., North Easton. 1899 Ames, John S., North Easton. 1894 Ames, Oakes, North Easton. 1899 Ames, Oliver, North Easton. 1867 Amory, Fredertc, Boston. 1899 Anderson, Larz, Brookline. 1911 Anderson, William, South Lan- caster. 1864 Andrews, Charles L., Milton. 1871 Appleton, Hon. Francis H., Boston. 1914 Appleton, Francis R., New York, N. Y. 1913 Appleton, Henry Saltonstall, Boston. 1914 Apthorp, Mrs. Harrison O., Milton. 1900 Arnold, Mrs. George Francis, Brookline. 1894 Ash, John, Pomfret Centre, Conn. 1890 Atkins, Edwin F., Belmont. 1899 Ayer, James B., Boston. 1912 Bache, James S., Sharon, Conn. 1905 Backer, Clarence A., Melrose. 1914 Bacon, Miss E. S., Jamaica Plain. 1905 Badger, Walter I., Cambridge. 1902 Bailey, Robert M., Dedham. 1902 Baker, Clifton P., Dedham. 1901 Baker, James E., South Lincoln. 1904 Balch, Joseph, Dedham. 1909 Baldwin, Frank F., Ashland. 1888 Barber, J. Wesley, Newton. 1905 Barnard, George E., Ipswich. 1866 Barnes, Walter S., Brookline. 1904 Barney, Arthur F., Dorchester. 1867 Barney, Levi C, Boston. 1917 Barrett, Mrs. William Emerson, West Newton. 1897 Barry, John Marshall, Boston. 1901 Bartlett, Miss Mary F., Boston. 1914 Bartol, Dr. John W., Boston. 1915 Bartsch, Hermann H., Waver- ley. 1901 Bates, Miss Mary D., Ipswich. 1915 Bauernfeind, John, Medford. 1899 Baylies. Walter (\, Taunton. 1914 Beal, Mrs. Boylston, Boston. 1905 Beal, Thomas P., Boston. 1891 Becker, Fredrru-k C, Cam- bridge. 1876 Beckford, Daniel R., Jr., Ded- ham. 1894 Beebe, E. Pienon, Boston. Beebe, Franklin EL, Boston. 1905 Bonus, Frank B., Beverly. L91 I Bemis, Mrs Frank B., Beverly. 154 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 1899 Bigelow, Albert S., Cohasset. 1914 Bigelow, Charles, Brookline. 1899 Bigelow, Joseph S., Cohasset. 1899 Bigelow, Dr. William Sturgis, Boston. 1899 Black, George N., Manchester. 1885 Blake, Mrs. Arthur W., Brook- line. 1914 Blake, Benjamin S., Auburn- dale. 1897 Blake, Edward D., Boston. 1918 Blanchard, Archibald, Boston. 1908 Blood, Eldredge H., Swamp- scott. 1905 Boardman, Miss Eliza D., Boston. 1899 Boardman, T. Dennie, Man- chester. 1914 Boit, Miss Elizabeth E., Wake- field. 1894 Bosler, Frank C, Carlisle, Penn. 1887 Bowditch, Charles P., Jamaica Plain. 1883 Bowditch, James H., Brookline. 1894 Bowditch, Nathaniel I., Fram- ingham. 1877 Bowditch,William E., Roxbury. 1913 Brackett, C. Henry B., Boston. 1912 Bradley, Charles H., Boston. 1914 Brandegee, Mrs. Edward D., Brookline. 1900 Breck, Joseph Francis, Waban. 1914 Breck, Luther Adams, Newton. 1871 Bresee, Albert, Hubbardton, Vt. 1914 Brewer, Edward M., Milton. 1914 Brewer, Joseph, Milton. 1918 Brewer, William C, Newton Centre. 1905 Brewster, William, Cambridge. 1910 Briggs, Mrs. George R., Ply- mouth. 1897 Briggs, William S., Lincoln. 1873 Brigham, William T., Hono- lulu, Hawaii. 1909 Brooke, Edmund G., Jr., Provi- dence, R. I. 1914 Brooks, Henry G., Milton. 1899 Brooks, Peter C.j Boston. 1899 Brooks, Shepherd, Boston. 1912 Brooks, Walter D., Milton. 1909 Brown, Mrs. John Carter, Prov- idence, R. I. 1907 Brush, Charles N., Brookline. 1915 Buckminster, W. B., Maiden. 1906 Buitta, Vincent, Newton Upper Falls. 1914 Bullard, Alfred M., Milton. 1918 Burgess, George Arthur, Mar- blehead. 1897 Burlen, William H., East Hol- liston. 1895 Burnett, Harry, Southborough. 1911 Burnett, John T., Southbor- ough. 1914 Burnett, Robert M., South- borough. 1914 Burnham, Miss Helen C, Bos- ton. 1909 Burr, I. Tucker, Milton. 1906 Burrage, Albert C, Boston. 1918 Burrage, Albert C, Jr., Ham- ilton. 1918 Burrage, Charles D., Boston. 1918 Burrage, Russell, Beverly Farms. 1868 Butler, Aaron, Wakefield. 1907 Butterworth, George William, South Framingham. 1906 Butterworth, J. Thomas, South Framingham. 1905 Buttrick, Stedman, Concord. 1902 Cabot, George E., Boston. 1914 Cabot, Henry B., Brookline. 1870 Calder, Augustus P., Brookline. 1896 Cameron, Robert, Cambridge. 1913 Campbell, Chester I., Wollas- ton. 1891 Campbell, Francis, Cambridge. 1905 Carr, Samuel, Boston. 1893 Carter, Charles N., Needham. 1899 Casas, W. B. de las, Maiden. LTFE MEMBERS 155 1911 Case, Miss Marian Roby, Wes- ton. 1918 Chalifoux, Mrs. H. L., Prides Crossing. 1873 Chamberlain, Chauncy W., Waban. 1909 Chamberlain, Montague, Gro- ton. 1903 Chapman, John L., Prides Crossing. .1909 Chase, Philip Putnam, Milton. 1895 Cheney, Mrs. Elizabeth S., Wellesley. 1894 Christie, William, Everett. 1876 Clapp, Edward B., Dorchester. 1871 Clapp, William C, Dorchester. 1896 Clark, B. Preston, Cohasset. 1917 Clark, Edward A., Jamaica Plain. 1896 Clark, Miss Eleanor J., Pomfret Centre, Conn. 1907 Clark, Herbert A., Belmont. 1890 Clark, J. Warren, Millis. 1910 Clark, Winslow, Milton. 1899 Clarke, Eliot C, Boston. 1914 Clifford, Charles P., Milton. 1895 Clough, Micajah Pratt, Lynn. 1894 Cobb, John C, Milton. 1914 Cochrane, Alexander, Boston. 1906 Codman, Miss Catherine A., Westwood. 1914 Codman, James M., Jr., Brook- line. 1901 Coe, Miss Mary Alma, Boston. 1903 Cogswell, Edward R., Jr., New- ton Highlands. 1882 Collins, Frank S., North Easthain. 1914 Collins, William J., Brookline. 1917 Comley, Henry R., Lexington. 1902 Comley, \ orris F., Lexington. 1917 Com. n I \\ '.. Newton. 1899 Convene, Col II. E., Marion. 1913 Cook, Thomas V, Watertnwn. 1917 Cooley, Arthur \.. 1'it tstield. 191 1 Coolidge, Charles A . Boston. 1902 Coolidge, Harold J., Boston. 1899 Coolidge, J. Randolph, Chest- nut Hill. 1899 Coolidge, Mrs. J. Randolph, Chestnut Hill. 1914 Cotting, Charles E., Boston. 1914 Cotting, Mrs. Charles E., Bos- ton. 1892 Cottle, Henry C, Boston. 1917 Cotton, Miss Elizabeth A., Brookline. 1914 Councilman, Dr. W. T., Bos- ton 1917 Cowey, S. R., Walpole, N. H. 1913 Cox, Simon F., Mattapan. 1892 Cox, Thomas A., Dorchester. 1914 Crafts, Miss Elizabeth S., Bos- ton. 1901 Craig, William Nicol, Brookline. 1917 Crane, Charles R., New York, N. Y. 1917 Crane, Mrs. R. T., Jr., Chicago, 111. 1891 Crawford, Dr. Sarah M., Rox- bury. 1917 Crocker, Mrs. George U., Bos- ton. 1914 Crompton, Miss Isabel M., Worcester. 1887 Crosby, George E., West Med- ford. 1914 Crosby, Mrs. S. V. R., Boston. 1901 Cross, Alfred Richard, North Cohasset. 1909 Cumner, Mrs. Nellie IV, Brook- line. 1856 Curtis, Charles F., Jamaica Plain. 1899 Curtis, Charles P.. Boston. Cutler. Mrs. Charles F . Boston. 1903 Cutler, Judge Samuel K.. Re- vere. I I unon, Frederick w . Arling- ton. L906 Dene, Ernest B.. Brookline. 156 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 1908 Dane, Mrs. Ernest B., Brook- line. 1899 Daniels, Dr. Edwin A., Boston . 1909 Danielson, Mrs. J. DeForest, Boston. 1902 Davis, Arthur E., Dover. 1902 Davis, Mrs. Arthur E., Dover. 1913 Davis, Bancroft Chandler, Wes- ton. 1916 Davis, Miss Helen I., Wellesley. 1914 Davis, Livingston, Milton. 1909 Dawson, Henry Sargent. Ja- maica Plain. 1905 Day, Henry B., West Newton. 1917 Day, Mrs. Mary E., Newton. 1873 Denny, Clarence H., Boston. 1917 Dexter, George T., Boston. 1904 Dexter, Gordon, Beverly Farms. 1904 Dexter, Philip, Beverly. 1896 Donald, William, Cold Spring Harbor, N. Y. 1900 Donaldson, James, Roxbury. 1907 Doten, Scott T., Lincoln. 1917 Doty, George H., Boston. 1914 Douglass, Alfred, Brookline. 1917 Downs, Jere Arthur, Win- chester. 1910 Downs, William, Chestnut Hill. 1917 Dowse, Charles F., Boston. 1893 Dowse, William B. H., West Newton. 1917 Draper, B. H. Bristow, Hope- dale. 1899 Draper, George A., Hopedale. 1897 Dumaresq, Herbert, Chestnut HiU. 1899 Duncan, James L., New York, N. Y. 1902 Duncan, John W., Spokane, Wash. 1896 Dunlap,James H.,Nashua,N.H. 1915 Dunn, Stephen Troyte, F.L.S., F.R.G.S., Kew, England. 1915 Dupee, William Arthur, Milton. 1909 Dupuy, Louis, Whitestone ; L. I., N. Y. 1880 Dutcher, Frank J., Hopedale. 1917 Dutcher, Miss Grace M., Hope- dale. 1902 Dyer, Herbert H., Arlington. 1912 Eaton, Harris D., Southbor- ough. 1911 Edgar, Mrs. Rose H., Waverley. 1912 Edgar, William Percival, Ja- maica Plain. 1895 Eldredge, H. Fisher, Boston. 1887 Elliott, Mrs. John W., Boston. 1888 Elliott, William H., Brighton. 1903 Ellsworth, J. Lewis, Worcester. 1907 Emerson, Nathaniel W., M.D., Boston. 1917 Emmons, Mrs. R. M., 2nd, Boston. 1894 Endicott, William, Boston. 1899 Endicott, William C, Danvers. 1915 Ernst, Mrs. Harold C, Ja- maica Plain. 1897 Estabrook, Arthur F., Boston. 1905 Estabrook, Mrs. Arthur F., Boston. 1907 Eustis, Miss Elizabeth M., Brookline. 1907 Eustis, Miss Mary St. Barbe, Brookline. 1914 Evans, Mrs. Robert D., Boston. 1915 Fairbanks, Charles F., Milton. 1881 Fairchild, Charles, New York, N. Y. 1877 Falconer, William, Pittsburg,Pa. 1884 Farlow, Lewis H., Boston. 1896 Farnsworth, Mrs. William, Ded- ham. 1890 Farquhar, James F. M., Roslin- dale. 1891 Farquhar, John K. M. L., Roxbury. 1915 Farquhar, Mrs. John K. M. L., Roxbury. 1884 Farquhar, Robert, North Cam- bridge. LIFE MEMBERS 157 1873 Faxon, John, Quincy 1899 Fay, H. H., Woods Hole. 1908 Fay, Wilton B., West Medford. 1914 Fearing, George R., Jr., Boston. 1917 Fenno, Mrs. Pauline Shaw, Rowley. 1899 Fessenden, George B., Allston. 1917 Fessenden, Sewell H., Boston. 1883 Fewkes, Arthur H., Newton Highlands. 1904 Finlayson, Duncan, Jamaica Plain. 1892 Finlayson, Kenneth, Jamaica Plain. 1901 Fisher, Peter, Ellis. 1910 Flanagan, Joseph F., Newton. 1882 Fletcher, George V., Belmont. 1883 Fletcher, J. Henry, Belmont. 1917 Foot, Nathan Chandler, M.D., Milton. 1914 Forbes, Alexander, M.D., Mil- ton. 1909 Forbes, Charles Stewart,Boston 1909 Forbes, Mrs.J. Malcolm, Milton. 1914 Forbes, W. Cameron, West- wood. 1909 Forbes, Mrs.WilliamH., Milton. 1917 Fosdick, Lucian J., Boston. 1914 Foster, Alfred D., Milton. 1899 Foster, Charles H. W., Need- ham. 1917 Foster, Miss Fanny, Newport, R. I. 1885 Fottler, John, Jr., Dorchester. 1914 Fraser, Charles E. K., South Natick. 1911 Freeman, Mrs. James G., Bos- ton. 1910 French, Mrs. Albert M., Read- ing. 1892 French, 8. Waldo, Newtonville. 1893 French, W. Clifford, Brookline. 1917 Frishmuth, Miss Anna Biddle, Boston 1882 Frohock, EtoSOOC R., Boston. 1903 Frost, Harold L., Arlington. 1900 Frost, Irving B., Belmont. 1899 Frothingham, Mrs. Louis A., Boston. 1917 Gage, Mrs. Homer, Worcester. 1910 Galloupe, Frederic R., Lexing- ton. 1914 Gannett, Samuel, Milton. 1914 Gardiner, Robert H., Gardiner, Maine. 1901 Gardner, Mrs. Augustus P., Hamilton. 1895 Gardner, George P., Boston. 1899 Gardner, John L., Boston. 1899 Gardner, Mrs. John L., Brook- line. 1899 Gardner, William Amory, Gro- ton. 1910 Garland, Mrs. Marie T., Buz- zards Bay. 1904 Garratt, Allan V., Holliston. 1899 Gaston, William A., Boston. 1911 Gavin, Frank D., Manchester. 1910 Geiger, Albert Jr., Brookline. 1911 Gill, Miss Adeline Bradbury, Medford. 1911 Gill, Miss Eliza M., Medford. 1865 Gill, Mrs. E. M., Medford. 1887 Gill, George B., Medford 1907 Goddard, Samuel J., Framing- ham. 1904 Goodale, Dr. Joseph L., Boston. 1885 Goodell, L. W., Dwight. 1917 Gordan, Donald. Lincoln. 1899 Gray, Mrs. John I ' . Boston. 1914 Greene, Edwin Farnhani. Bos- ton. 1905 Greenough, Mrs. Charles IV, Brookline. L912 Greenough, M». David S . Jamaica Plain, loi i Grew, Mr-. Bdwaid 8., Boston. 1014 Grow. Edward \\\. Boston. L807 Halo. Jamei 0., Bjfield 1873 Hall. Edwin A , Cambridfeport 158 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 1912 Hall, Mrs. George G., Boston. 1899 Hall, Jackson E., Cambridge. 1897 HaU, Osborn B., Maiden. 1910 Halloran, Edward J., Rox- bury. 1917 Hammond, Mrs. E. C, Au- burndale. 1913 Handler, Max Paul, South Natick. 1914 Harding, Charles L., Dedham. 1918 Harding, Mrs. Edward, Plain- field, N. J. 1871 Hardy, F. D., Cambridgeport. 1905 Hardy, Miss Susan White, Boston. 1889 Hargraves, William J., Jamaica Plain. 1887 Harris, Thaddeus William, A. M., Littleton, N. H. 1910 Harris, Prof. William Fenwick, Cambridge. 1909 Hart, Francis R., Milton. 1899 Hartshorn, Arthur E., Worces- ter. 1914 Hartt, Arthur W., Brookline. 1895 Harwood, George Fred, New- ton. 1884 Hastings, Levi W., Brookline. 1906 Hauthaway, Edwin D., Sharon. 1914 Havemeyer, Theodore A., New York, N. Y. 1891 Hawken, Mrs. Thomas, Rock- land, Me. 1899 Hay ward, George P., Chestnut Hill. 1914 Haywood, H. T., Franklin. 1905 Head, Thomas W., Lake Forest, 111. 1913 Heeremans, F., Lenox. 1903 Hellier, Charles E., Boston. 1888 Hemenway, Augustus, Canton. 1899 Hemenway, Mrs. Augustus, Canton. 1914 Hemenway, Augustus, Jr., Bos- ton. 1884 Henshaw, Joseph P. B., Boston. 1899 Henshaw, Samuel, Cambridge. 1901 Heurlin, Julius, South Brain- tree. 1894 Hewett, Miss Mary Crane, Cambridge. 1900 Higginson, Francis L., Boston. 1902 Higginson, Mrs. Henry L., Boston. 1866 Hilbourn, A. J. Boston. 1886 Hittinger, Jacob, Belmont. 1911 Hittinger, Richard, Belmont. 1895 Hoitt, Hon. Charles W., Nashua, N. H. 1905 Holbrook, E. Everett, Boston. 1918 Holbrook, Miss Grace Ware, Boston. 1914 Hollingsworth, Valentine, Bos- ton. 1899 Hollingsworth, Z. T., Boston. 1881 Hollis, George W., Allston. 1891 Holmes, Edward J., Boston. 1900 Holt, William W., Norway, Maine. 1899 Hood, The Hon. Mrs. Ellen, Sheen, Surrey, Eng. 1914 Hornblower, Henry, Boston. 1888 Horsford, Miss Kate, Cam- bridge. 1912 Horton, Arthur E., Lexington. 1902 Hosmer, Oscar, Wenham. 1907 Houghton, Clement S., Chest- nut Hill. 1910 Houghton, Miss Elizabeth G.. Boston. 1872 Hovey, Charles H., South Pasadena, Cal. 1884 Hovey, Stillman S., Woburn. 1917 Howard, Everett C, Belcher- town. 1904 Howard, Henry M., West New- ton. 1896 Howard, Joseph W., Somer- ville. 1915 Howes, Mrs. Ernest, Boston. LIFE MEMBERS 159 1917 Howes, Osborne, Brookline. 1896 Hubbard, Charles WeUs, Wes- ton. 1917 Hubbard, Eliot, Boston. 1865 Hubbard, James C, Everett. 1913 Huebner, H., Groton. 1875 Humphrey, George W., Holly- wood, Cal. 1917 Hunnewell, Mrs. Arthur, Wellesley. 1912 Hunnewell, F. W., 2d., Welles- ley. 1893 Hunnewell, Henry Sargent, Wellesley. 1912 Hunnewell, Mrs. Henry S., Wellesley. 1882 Hunnewell, Walter, Wellesley. 1912 Hunnewell, Walter, Jr., Welles- ley. 1917 Hunt, Miss Belle, Boston. 1892 Hunt, Dudley F., Reading. 1880 Hunt, William H., Concord. 1904 Hutchins, Rev. Charles Lewis, Concord. 1893 Jack, John George, East Wal- pole. 1886 Jackson, Charles L., Boston. 1914 Jackson, Mrs. James, Jr., West- wood. 1884 Jackson, Robert T., Peter- borough, N. H. 1916 Jahn, Paul H., East Bridge- water. 1916 Jahn, William O., East Bridge- water. L902 .lames, Ellerton, Milton. 1902 James, Mrs. Ellerton. Mil- ton. 1913 Jeffries, John Temple I.., Cam- bridge. 1899 Jeffries, William A., Boston. isr,:, Jenks, Chariea w., Bedford. 1905 Johnson, Arthur S., Boston. 191 1 Johnson, Edward C, Boston. 1885 Johnson, J. Frank, Maiden. 1907 Jones, Mrs. Clarence W. , Brookline. 1897 Jones, Dr. Mary E., Boston. 1897 Kellen, William V., Marion. 1886 Kelly, George B., Jamaica Plain. 1848 Kendall, D.S., Woodstock, Ont. 1891 Kendall, Dr. Walter G., At- lantic. 1909 Kennedy, Harris, M. D., Mil- ton. 1905 Keyes, Mrs. Emma Mayer, Boston. 1891 Keyes, John M., Concord. 1889 Kidder, Charles A., South- borough. 1910 Kidder, Mrs. Henry P., Boston. 1880 Kidder, Nathaniel T., Milton. 1899 Kimball, David P., Boston. 1903 Kimball, Richard D., Waban. 1899 Kinney, H. R., Worcester. 1906 Kinnicutt, Mrs. Leonard P., Worcester. 1904 Kirkland, Archie Howard, Reading. 1899 Lamb, Horatio A., Milton. 1913 Lancaster, Dr. Walter B., Brookline. 1899 Lanier, Charles. Lenox. 1917 Lapham. Henry G.. Brookline. 1895 Lawrence, Amos A.. Mew York, \. Y. 1873 Lawrence, John, Groton. 1899 Lawrence, Rt. Rev. William, Boston. L896 Lee, Daniel D., Jamaica Plain. I'M 1 Lee, George C. f Westwool. 191 1 Lee, Mrs. George C.West wood. L88Q Leeaon, Son. Joseph EL, New- ton Centre. LQ09 Leighton, I B., Ifona 1- nock, \ .H. 1914 Lelandj Letter, Boston. L91 1 Leland, Mi ton. 160 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 1871 Lemme, Frederick, Charles- town. 1903 Libby, Charles W., Medford. 1917 Liggett, Louis K., Chestnut Hill. 1899 Little, John Mason, Swamp- scott. 1899 Locke, Isaac H., Belmont. 1891 Lodge, Richard W., Redlands, Cal. 1897 Loomis, Elihu G., Bedford. 1899 Loring, Augustus P., Beverly. 1905 Loring, David, Boston. 1914 Loring, Miss Katharine P., Prides Crossing. 1914 Loring, Miss Louisa P., Prides Crossing. 1899 Loring, Mrs. William Caleb, Beverly. 1899 Lowell, Abbott Lawrence, Bos- ton. 1902 Lowell, Miss Amy, Brookline. 1903 Lowell, James A., Chestnut Hill. 1903 Lowell, John, Newton. 1904 Lowell, Miss Lucy, Boston. 1917 Luke, Arthur F., West Newton. 1899 Luke, Otis H., Brookline. » 1895 Lunt, William W., Hingham. 1918 Lyman, Arthur, Boston. 1914 Lyman, C. Frederic, Boston. 1895 Lyman, George H., Wareham. 1898 Mabbett, George, Plymouth. 1912 McKay, Alexander, Jamaica Plain. 1911 McKenzie, Donald, Chestnut Hill. 1868 Mahoney, John, Boston. 1892 Mallett, E. B., Jr., Freeport, Me. 1884 Manda, W. A., South Orange, N.J. 1873 Mann, James F., Ipswich. 1887 Manning, J. Woodward, Read- ing. 1884 Manning, Warren H., Brook- line. 1909 Marlborough, James, Topsfield. 1876 Marshall, Frederick F., Ever- ett. 1898 Marston, Howard, Brookline. 1917 Martin, Edwin S., Chestnut Hill. 1899 Mason, Miss Ellen F., Boston. 1896 Mason, Col. Frederick, Taun- ton. 1914 Mathews, Miss Elizabeth Ash- by, Newton Center. 1901 Matthews, Nathan, Boston. 1906 Maxwell, George H., Newton. 1917 Mead, Francis V., West Somer- ville. 1902 Melvin, George, South Fram- ingham. 1905 Meredith, J. Morris, Topsfield. 1881 Merriam, Herbert, Weston. 1917 Methven, James, Readville. 1884 Metivier, James, Waltham. 1914 Mifflin, George H., Boston. 1914 Miller, Peter M., Mattapan. 1888 Milmore, Mrs. Joseph, Wash- ington, D. C. 1917 Mink, Oliver W., Boston. 1915 Minot, Mrs. Charles S., Read- ville. 1908 Minot, Laurence, Boston. 1892 Monteith, David, Hyde Park, Vt. 1896 Montgomery, Alexander, Na- tick. 1902 Montgomery, Alexander, Jr., Natick. 1896 Moore, George D., Arlington. 1881 Moore, John H., Concord. 1897 Morgan, George H., New York, N. Y. 1914 Morgan, Mrs. J. P., New York, N. Y. 1913 Morison, Robert S., Cam- bridge. 1899 Morse, John T., Boston. LIFE MEMBERS 161 1909 Morse, John Torrey, 3d., Bos- 1909 ton. 1910 Morse, Lewis Kennedy, Box- 1909 ford. 1913 Morse, Robert C, Milton. 1900 1900 Morse, Robert M., Jamaica Plain. 1884 1914 Morss, Charles A., Chestnut 1914 HOI. 1914 Morss, Mrs. Charles A., Chest- 1908 nut Hill. 1913 1902 Morton, James H., Huntington, 1911 N. Y. 1915 1896 Moseley, Charles H., Roxbury. 1909 Moseley, Charles W., New- 1917 buryport. 1891 1896 Moseley, Frederick Strong, 1914 Newburyport. 1914 Munroe, Howard M., Lexing- 1897 ton. 1900 Murray, Peter, Fairhaven. 1909 1897 Mutch, John, Waban. 1909 1899 1917 Neal, James A., Brookline. 1881 1899 Nevins, Mrs. David, Methuen. 1907 1914 Newbold, Frederic R., New 1916 York, N. Y. 1874 Newman, John R., Winches- 1914 ter. 1874 Newton, Rev. William W., 1915 Pittsfield. 1899 1914 Nicholson, W^illiam R., Fram- ingham. 1873 1906 Nickerson, William E., Cam- 1917 bridge. 1914 Norman, Mrs. Louisa P., New- 1899 port, R. I. 1881 Norton, Charles W., Allston. 1900 1912 O'Connor, John, Brookline. 1899 1898 Olmsted, Frederick Law, Jr., Brookline. 1899 1892 Olmsted, John C, Brookline. isa"> 1898 Orpet. Edward O., Chico, Gal. 1903 1917 Osgood, Miss Fanny C, Hope- l dale. 1881 Page, George, Newton High- lands. Page, George William, South Lincoln. Page, Mrs. Henrietta, Cam- bridge. Paige, Clifton H., Mattapan. Paine, Robert Treat, 2d, Bos- ton. Parker, Augustine H., Dover. Parker, Edgar, North Easton. Parker, Edward, North Easton. Parker, Miss Eleanor S., Bed- ford. Parkhurst, Lewis, Winchester. Parkman, Henry, Boston. Patten, Miss Jane B., South Natick. Patten, Marcellus A., Tewks- bury. Peabody, Francis, Milton. Peabody, Mrs. Francis, Milton. Peabody, George A., Danvers. Peabody, John E., Salem. Peirce, E. Allan, Waltham. Peirce, Edward R., Wellesley Farms. Peirson, Charles Lawrence, Boston. Penn, Henry, Brookline. Pentecost, Mrs. Ernest Harvey, Topsfield. Perry, George \Y., Maiden. Peterson, George H., Fair Lawn, X. .1. Pfaff, Col. Charles, South Framingham. Phillips, John C\, North Bev- erly. Phillips, Mrs. John C. North l loverly. Phillips, William. North Beverly. Pickman, Dudley I... Boston. Piekinan. Mrs. Kllen EL, lk)8- ton. Pier ikline. w — 162 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 1892 Pierce, George Francis, Ne- ponset. 1905 Pierce, Wallace L., Boston. 1905 Pierson, Frank R., Tarry town, N. Y. 1914 Pingree, David, Salem. 1900 Pond, Preston, Winchester. 1892 Porter, James C, Wollaston. 1884 Pratt, Laban, Dorchester. 1914 Pratt, Waldo E., Wellesley Hills. 1898 Pray,James Sturgis, Cambridge. 1899 Prendergast, James M., Boston. 1858 Prescott, Eben C, New York, N. Y. 1914 Preston, Andrew W., Swamp- scott. 1903 Preston, Howard Willis, Provi- dence, R. I. 1911 Priest, Lyman F., Gleason- dale. 1912 Proctor, Henry H., Boston. 1901 Proctor, Thomas E., Boston. 1899 Putnam, George, Manchester. 1900 Putnam, George J., Brookline. 1886 Quimby, Hosea M., M.D., Wor- cester. 1889 Rand, Harry S., North Cam- bridge. 1908 Rand, Miss Margaret A., Cam- bridge. 1903 Rawson, Herbert W., Arling- ton. 1882 Ray, James F., Franklin. 1890 Raymond, Walter, Pasadena, Cal. 1891 Read, Charles A., Manchester. 1902 Reardon, Edmund, Cambridge. 1892 Reardon, John B., Boston. 1912 Reiff, William, Forest Hills. 1905 Remick, Frank W., West New- ton. 1889 Rice, George C, Worcester. 1887 Rich, William P., Chelsea. 1876 Richards, John J., Brookline. 1899 Richardson, Mrs. F. L. W., Charles River Village. 1912 Richardson, H. H., Brookline. 1918 Richardson, William K., Na- hant. 1900 Richardson, Dr. William L., Boston. 1905 Riggs, William Allan, Auburn- dale. 1917 Riley, Charles E., Newton. 1886 Ripley, Charles, Dorchester. 1892 Ripley, Ebed L., Hingham Centre. 1903 Robb, Russell, Concord. 1909 Roberts, Miss Anna B., Bos- ton. 1909 Robinson, Alfred E., Lexing- ton. 1871 Robinson, John, Salem. 1900 Rodman, Miss Mary, Concord. 1911 Rogers, Dexter M., Allston. 1914 Rogers, Dudley P., Danvers. 1899 Rogers, Mrs. Jacob C, Pea- body. 1900 Roland, Thomas, Nahant. 1910 Ross, Harold S., Hingham. 1895 Rothwell, James E., Brookline. 1899 Roy, David Frank, Marion. 1881 Ruddick, William H., M. D., South Boston. 1917 Rueter, Mrs. C. J., Jamaica Plain. 1875 Russell, George, Woburn. 1900 Russell, James S., Milton. 1914 Russell, Mrs. Robert S., Boston. 1893 Salisbury, William C. G., Brook- line. 1915 Saltonstall, Mrs. Caroline S., Milton. 1912 Saltonstall, John L., Beverly. 1912 Saltonstall, Mrs. John L., Bev- erly. 1899 Saltonstall, Richard M., Chest- nut Hill. LIFE MEMBERS 163 1898 Sanger, Mrs. George P., Bos- ton. 1870 Sargent, Charles S., Brookline. 1899 Sargent, Mrs. Charles S., Brookline. 1902 Sargent, Charles Sprague, Jr., Brookline. 1899 Sargent, Mrs. Francis W., Wel- lesley. 1896 Scorgie, James C, Cambridge. 1864 Scott, Charles, Newton. 1895 Sears, Miss Clara E., Boston. 1899 Sears, Dr. Henry F., Boston. 1914 Sears, Horace S., Weston. 1899 Sears, Mrs. J. Montgomery, Boston. 1898 Sharp, Miss Helen, Boston. 1914 Shattuck, Dr. Frederick C, Boston. 1914 Shattuck, Mrs. Frederick C, Boston. 1899 Shaw, Francis, Wayland. 1914 Shaw, Henry S., Milton. 1899 Shaw, Mrs. Robert G., Welles- ley. 1901 Shea, .lames B., Jamaica Plain. 1906 Sherman, .1. P. R., Newton. 1865 Shorey, John L., Lynn. 1901 Shurtleff, Josiah B., Revere. 1893 Siebrecht, H. A., New Rochelle, N. Y. 1917 Silber, Miss Charlotte G., Needham. 1917 Silsbee, Miss Katharine E., Boston. 1899 Sleeper, Henry Davis, Boston. 1903 Smiley, Daniel, Lake Mohonk, N. Y. 1888 Smith, Charles S., Lincoln. 1872 Smith. Edward N.. San Fran- cisco, Cal. l *. > 1 1 Smith, John I... Swampscott. 1888 Smith. Thomas Page, Waltham. 1874 Snow, Eugene \ . Cambridge. L899 Sohier. Col. William D erly 1918 Spalding, Miss Dora N., Boston. 1908 Spaulding, John T., Prides Crossing. 1908 Spaulding, William S., Prides Crossing. 1897 Sprague, Isaac, Wellesley Hills. 1884 Stearns, Charles H., Brookline. 1893 Stearns, Frank W., Newton. 1896 Stedman, Henry R., M. D., Brookline. 1914 Stevens, Mrs. Nathaniel, North Andover. 1885 Stewart, William J., Winchester. 1918 Stimpson, Harry F. ; Chestnut Hill. 1901 Stone, Charles A., Newton. 1889 Stone, Charles W., Boston. 1910 Stone, Mrs. Francis H., South Dartmouth. 1914 Stone, Galen L., Brookline. 1896 Stone, Prof. George E., Am- herst. 1849 Stone, George F., Chestnut Hill. 1914 Stone, J. Winthrop, Watertown. 1914 Stone, Nathaniel H., Milton. 1917 Storey, Moorfiel.l. Boston. L906 Storrow, James J., Boston. 1918 Stranger, David C, West New- bury. 1905 Stratum, Charles Iv. Boston. 1906 Strout, Charles 8., Biddeford, Me. 1914 Sturgia, Miss Evelyn P.. Man- chester. L902 Sturgia, Richard Clipeton, Boa- ton. Bui; Sturtevant, Miss I Wel- leeley Farms. 1910 Sullivan. Martin. Jamaica Plain. 1912 Swan, Charles H . Jamaica Plain. L891 • M 1 . M Men. 1916 Swett, Raymond w , Saxon* Vlll.V 164 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 1904 Sylvester, Edmund Q., Han- over. 1899 Taylor, Charles H., Boston. 1900 Taylor, Mrs. Thomas, Jr., Columbia, S. C. 1913 Tedcastle, Mrs. Arthur W., Hyde Park. 1896 Tenney, Charles H., Methuen. 1917 Thacher, Miss Elizabeth B., Roxbury. 1912 Thatcher, Arthur E., Bar Har- bor, Me. 1898 Thatcher, William, Brookline. 1899 Thayer, Mrs. Alice R., Bos- ton. 1900 Thayer, Mrs. Bayard, South Lancaster. 1899 Thayer, Mrs. Eugene V. R., South Lancaster. 1903 Thayer, Henry J., Boston. 1899 Thayer, John E., South Lan- caster. 1899 Thayer, Mrs. John E., South Lancaster. 1899 Thayer, Mrs. Nathaniel, Lan- caster. 1899 Thiemann, Hermann, Owosso, Mich. 1899 Thomas, W. B., Manchester. 1910 Thurlow, George C, West Newbury. 1913 Thurlow, Winthrop H., West Newbury. 1874 Tolman, Miss Harriet S., Bos- ton. 1896 Toppan, Roland W. ; Newbury- port. 1899 Tower, Miss Ellen May, Lex- ington. 1901 Tower, Mrs. Helen M., Cam- bridge. 1914 Towle, L. D., Newton. 1893 Trepess, Samuel J., Glencove, L. I., N. Y. 1917 Tufts, Bowen, Medford. 1910 Turner, Chester Bidwell, Stoughton. 1914 Tyler, Charles H., Boston. 1910 Underwood, Henry O., Bel- mont. 1901 Underwood, Loring, Belmont. 1917 Van Brunt, Mrs. Agnes, Read- ville. 1873 Vander-Woerd, Charles, Wal- tham. 1899 Vaughan, William Warren, Bos- ton. 1884 Vinal, Miss Mary L., Somer- ville. 1916 Wagstaff, Archibald, Wellesley Hills. 1909 Wainwright, Arthur, Milton. 1849 Wakefield, E. H., Cambridge. 1876 Walcott, Henry P., M. D., Cambridge. 1895 Waldo, C. Sidney, Jamaica Plain. 1914 Walker, William B., Man- chester. 1896 Walsh, Michael H., Woods Hole. 1901 Waltham, George C, Dorches- ter. 1907 Walton, Arthur G., Wakefield. 1902 Warburton, Chatterton, Fall River. 1912 Wardwell, Mrs. T. Otis, Haver- hill. 1894 Ware, Miss Mary L., Boston. 1909 Warren, Bentley W., Boston. 1884 Watson, Thomas A., East Braintree. 1914 Watters, W. F., Boston. 1905 Webster, Edwin S., Chestnut HiU. 1914 Webster, Mrs. Edwin S., Chest- nut Hill. 1905 Webster, Frank G., Boston. LIFE MEMBERS 165 1907 Webster, George H., Haver- hill. 1896 Webster, Hollis, Cambridge. 1905 Webster, Laurence J., Holder- ness, X. H. 1909 Weeks, Andrew Gray, Marion. 1902 Welch, Edward J., Dorchester. 1914 Weld, Mrs. Charles G., Brook- line. 1917 Weld, Rudolph, Boston. 1899 Weld, Gen. Stephen M., Ware- ham. 1914 Weld, Mrs. Stephen M., Ware- ham. 1912 Wellington, Mrs. Arthur W., Boston. 1917 Wellington, William H., Bos- ton. 1882 West, Mrs. Maria L., Nepon- set. 1887 Wheeler, Frank, Concord. 1889 Wheeler, James, Natick. 1897 Wheeler, Wilfrid, Concord. 1865 Whitcomb, William B., Med- ford. 1901 White, Mrs. Charles T., Bos- ton. 1899 White, George R., Boston. 1909 White, Harry K., Milton. 1917 Whitehouse, Mrs. Francis M., Manchester. 1905 Whitman, William, Brookline. 1894 Whitney, Arthur E., Winches- ter. 1894 Whitney, Ellerton P., Milton. 1899 Whitney, Henry M., Cohasset. 1917 Whittemore, Charles, Cam- bridge. 1915 Wigglesworth, Frank, Milton. 1899 Wigglesworth, George, Milton. 1863 Wilbur, George B., Boston. 1889 Wilde, Mrs. Albion D., West Roxbury. 1881 Wilder, Edward Baker, Dor- chester. 1899 Williams, Miss Adelia Coffin, Roxbury. 1905 Williams, George Percy, Bos- ton. 1899 Williams, John Davis, Bos- ton. 1905 Williams, Mrs. J. Bertram, Cambridge. 1905 Williams, Mrs. Moses, Brook- line. 1911 Williams, Ralph B., Dover. 1915 Wilson, E. H., Jamaica Plain. 1914 Wilson, Fred A., Nahant. 1881 Wilson, William Power, Bos- ton. 1917 Winslow, Arthur, Boston. 1905 Winsor, Robert, Weston. 1906 Winter, Herman L., Portland, Me. 1914 Winthrop, Grenville L., Lenox. 1914 Winthrop, Mrs. Robert, New York, X. Y. 1914 Winthrop, Mrs. Robert C, Jr., Boston. 1870 Wood, William K., Franklin. 1905 Woodberry, Miss E. Gertrude, Xorth Cambridge. 1905 Woodbury, John, Canton. 1906 Woodward. Mrs. Samuel Bay- ard. Worcester. 1917 Wright, George B., Watertown. 1900 Wyman, Windsor H., Xorth Abington. 166 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY ANNUAL MEMBERS. 1913 Adams, Charles F., Jamaica Plain. 1896 Anderson, George M., Milton. 1912 Babcock, Miss Mabel Keyes, Wellesley Hills. 1911 Bacon, Augustus, Roxbury. 1915 Baker, Mrs. G. B., Chestnut Hill. 1918 Barnes, Rowland H., Newton Highlands. 1898 Barr, John, South Natick. 1916 Barron, Leonard, Garden City, N. Y. 1917 Beal, Thomas P., Jr., Boston. 1917 Blodgett, Mrs. John, Beach Bluff. 1917 Bogholt, Christian M., New- port, R. I. 1901 Bradley, Miss Abby A., Hing- ham. 1913 Bradley, Miss Julia H., Rox- bury. 1873 Breck, Charles H., Newton. 1902 Breed, Edward W., Clinton. 1908 Briggs, Frank P., Ayer. 1909 Brigham, Mrs. Clifford, Milton. 1914 Brown, F. Howard, Marlboro. 1916 Brown, Mrs. G. Winthrop, Chestnut Hill. 1914 Campbell, Ernest W., Wollas- ton. 1910 Camus, Emil, Boston. 1917 Carlquist, Sigurd W., Lenox. 1904 Chandler, Alfred D., Brookline. 1917 Chase, H. F., Andover. 1918 Chick, Isaac W., Boston. 1917 Child, H. Walter, Boston. 1910 Churchill, Charles E., Rockland. 1916 Clark, Schuyler S., Brookline. 1918 Clarke, Hermann F., Brookline. 1918 Cogger, Thomas, Melrose. 1914 Colt, James D., Chestnut Hill. 1907 Colt, Mrs. James D., Chestnut Hill. 1917 Conant, Mrs. William C, Bos- ton. 1917 Coolidge, Mrs. W. H., Boston. 1915 Copson, William A., Roslindale. 1914 Crocker, Mrs. George Glover, Boston. 1914 Crocker, Joseph Ballard, Chat- ham. 1914 Crompton, Miss Mary A., Worcester. 1881 Crosby, J. Allen, Jamaica Plain. 1917 Curtis, Allen, Boston. 1875 Curtis, Joseph H., Boston. 1914 Cushing, Mrs. Harvey, Brook- line. 1912 Cutler, Mrs. N. P., Newton. 1906 Cutting, Mrs. Isabelle Ladd, Roxbury. 1910 Dahl, Frederick William, Rox- bury. 1917 Dalton, Philip S., Milton. 1889 Davis, Frederick S., West Rox- bury. 1911 Dolansky, Frank J., Lynn. 1918 Donald, James, Wellesley. 1897 Dorr, George B., Bar Harbor, Me. 1918 Eccleston, Douglas, Beverly Farms. 1916 Estabrooks, Dr. John W., Wol- laston. 1902 Farlow, Mrs. William G., Cam- bridge. ANNUAL MEMBERS 167 1917 Farr, Mrs. Betty K., Stone- ham. 1917 Fiske, David L., Grafton. 1901 Fiske, Harry E., Wollaston. 1894 Fitzgerald, Desmond, Brook- line. 1917 Flood, Mrs. Mary, Woburn. 1903 Freeman, Miss Harriet E., Boston. 1905 Fuld, Maurice, New York, N.Y. 1912 Gage, L. Merton, Groton. 1912 Goodwin, Mrs. Daniel, East Greenwich, R. I. 1917 Gordon, George, Beverly. 1917 Graton, Louis, Randolph. 1900 Grey, Robert Melrose, Belmont, Cuba. 1897 Grey, Thomas J., Chelsea. 1908 Hamilton, Mrs. George Lang- ford, Magnolia. 1912 Hardy, John H., Jr., Little- ton. 1894 Hatfield, T. D., Wellesley. 1917 Hathaway, Walter D., New Bedford. 1918 Hayes, Herbert W., Waban. 1910 Hayward, Mrs. W. E., Ips- wich. 1918 Hecht, Prof. August G., Am- herst. 1891 Heustis, Warren H., Belmont. 1916 Hibbard, Miss Ann, West Rox- bury. 1914 Higginson, Mrs. Alexander H., Manchester. 1902 Hildreth, Miss Ella F., W ford. 1902 Hill, Arthur Dehon, Boston. 1884 Hill, J. Willard, Belmont. 1912 Hollingsworth, Mrs. Sumner, 'on. 1913 Holmes, Kl>er, Montrose. 1913 Houghton, Mrs. Clement - Chestnut Hill. 1917 Howard, W. !>.. Mflford 1900 Howden, Thomas, Hudson. 1917 Howe, Henry S., Brookline. 1902 Hubbard, Allen, Xewton Centre. 1893 Hubbard, F. Tracy, Brook- line. 1913 Jenkins, Edwin, Lenox. 1916 Jenks, Albert R., Springfield. 1903 Johnston, Robert, Lexington. 1898 Kelsey, Harlan P., Salem. 1898 Kennard, Frederic H., Xewton Centre. 1912 Kirkegaard, John, Bedford. 1889 Lancaster, Mrs. E. M., Rox- bury. 1914 Leach, C. Arthur, South Hamil- ton. 1914 Leary, Dr. Timothy, Jamaica Plain. 1917 Leonard, John E., Wellesley. 1904 Leuthy, A., Roslindale. 1902 Lewis, E. L., Taunton. 1896 Lincoln, Miss Agnes W., Med- ford. 1901 Loring, Mrs. Thacher, Boston. 1896 Loring, William C, Beverly. 1903 Lumsden, David, Ithaca, N. V. 1912 McCarthy, Nicholas 1 ., Sou Boston. 1904 MaeMulkin, Edward, Boston. 1890 Manning, A. Chandler, Wil- mington. 1917 Reader, II. E., Dover, N. II. 1917 Mixter. Dr. Samuel J., Bos- ton. 19] 1 Morse, Frank E., Auburn* lale. 1913 Murray, Peter, Manomet. L916 Nehrling. Prof. Arno H., Craw- for.Nville. Iml. 1896 Nieholson, William, Framing- ham. L9M Nieol. James, Quiney. 1908 Nixon, .1 Arthur. Taunton. 168 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 1913 O'Brien, Mrs. Edward F., Brookline. 1915 Parker, A. S., Stoneham. 1914 Parker, Miss Charlotte E., Ipswich. 1906 Parker, Eliab, Roxbury. 1892 Parker, Walter S., Reading. 1909 Parker, W. Prentiss, Roxbury. 1908 Peabody, Mrs. W. Rodman, Readville. 1914 Pembroke, A. A., Beverly. 1898 Pierce, Mrs. F. A., Brookline. 1902 Pritchard, John, Bedford Hills, N. Y. 1912 Proctor, Dr. Francis I., Welles- ley. 1883 Purdie, George A., Wellesley Hills. 1913 Putnam, Frank P., North Tewksbury. 1906 Rane, Prof. F. W., Waban. 1897 Rea, Frederic J., Norwood. 1912 Reed, H. B., Auburndale. 1914 Rees, Ralph W., Ithaca, N. Y. 1893 Rich, Miss Ruth G., Dorchester. 1888 Rich, William E. C, Ocean Park, Maine. 1900 Robb, Peter B., Whitinsville. 1893 Robinson, Walter A., Arling- ton. 1917 Rooney, John P., New' Bedford. 1915 Rosenthal, Wolf, Boston. 1892 Ross, Henry Wilson, Newton- ville. 1903 Ross, Walter D., Worcester. 1909 Russell, Charles F., Weston. 1910 Rust, William C, Brookline. 1918 Rutherford, William D. F., Norfolk. 1918 Ryder, Robert L., Lexington. 1907 Sanborn, Edward W., Boston. 1897 Sander, Charles J., Brookline. 1875 Saunders, Miss Mary T., Salem. 1896 Searles, E. F., Methuen. 1910 Sears, Prof. F. C, Amherst. 1907 Seaver, Robert, Jamaica Plain. 1886 Sharpies, Stephen P., Cam- bridge. 1907 Sim, William, Cliftondale. 1915 Slamin, John, Wellesley. 1910 Smith, D. Roy, Boston. 1914 Smith, George N., Wellesley Hills. 1914 Spaulding, Mrs. Samuel S., Springfield Center, N. Y. 1914 Sprague, George H., Ipswich. 1917 Stephen, A. L., Waban. 1914 Stevenson, Robert H., Read- ville. 1914 Storey, Mrs. Richard C , Bos- ton. 1914 Sturgis, Miss Lucy Codman, Boston. 1904 Symmes, Samuel S., Winches- ter. 1914 Thayer, John E., Jr., Lancas- ter. 1909 Tracy, B. Hammond, Wenham. 1913 Tuckerman, Bayard, Ipswich. 1911 Ufford, Charles A., Dorchester. 1881 Vaughan, J. C, Chicago, 111. 1915 Wadsworth, Ralph E., North- boro. 1902 Ware, Horace E., Milton. 1917 Warren, Miss Cornelia, Wal- tham. 1914 Washburn, Paul, Boston. 1914 Waterer, Anthony, 3d, Phila- delphia, Pa. 1914 Waterer, Hosea, Philadelphia, Pa. 1889 Welch, Patrick, Dorchester. 1915 Wetterlow, Eric H., Manches- ter. 1909 Wheeler, George F., Concord. ANNUAL MEMBERS 160 1897 Wheeler, Henry A., Xewton- ville. 1917 White, Mrs. Joseph H., Brook- line. 1901 Wilder, Miss Grace S., Dor- chester. 1897 Wilkie, Edward A., Xewton- ville. 1913 Williams, Mrs. Emile F., Cam- bridge. 1889 Winter, William C, Mansfield.